Lighthouses of India: Kerala

The Republic of India (Bhārat in Hindi) is the seventh largest country and second most populous country in the world. It occupies a subcontinent of Asia that projects southward into the North Indian Ocean, separating the Bay of Bengal on the east from the Arabian Sea on the west. Before 1947 it was a patchwork of regions governed as British colonies and semi-independent princely states under British supervision. In 1947 this British Raj was partitioned into the independent states of India and Pakistan. Several French and Portuguese colonies embedded in the territory of India were absorbed in 1950 and 1961, respectively.

India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 8 union territories. Both states and territories are divided into districts. This page lists lighthouses of the southwestern coast of India in the State of Kerala. Kerala occupies the southern half of the coast known historically as the Malabar Coast. For many centuries it was visited by Arab and sometimes Chinese traders, and it was the first Indian coast encountered by European explorers. In general, the coastline is low and sandy, but the land rises quickly behind the beaches to the mountains called the Western Ghats. Kozhikode (Calicut), Cochin, and Kannur (Cannanore) are some of the better known of its many ports.

This page also includes one lighthouse of the Mahé District, an exclave of the Union Territory of Puducherry. Other lighthouses of Puducherry are described on the Tamil Nadu and Puducherry page.

The major lighthouses of India are staffed, and by tradition most of them are open to visitors for a short time during the late afternoon every day; inquire locally concerning the times.

Lighthouses and aids to navigation in India are administered by the Directorate General of Lighthouses and Lightships (DGLL), an agency of the Ministry of Shipping. Lighthouses in Kerala are maintained by the Cochin Directorate.

Hindi and English are official languages in India, with English serving as a lingua franca for the entire nation. The Indian Constitution recognizes another 21 languages, called scheduled languages, and each of the coastal states has its own scheduled language in official use. In Malayalam, the official language of Kerala, the word for a lighthouse is viḷakkumāṭaṁ (വിളക്കുമാടം). Dvīp is an island, nadi is a river, and tuṟamukhaṁ is a harbor.

ARLHS numbers are from the ARLHS World List of Lights. Admiralty numbers are from volume F of the Admiralty List of Lights & Fog Signals. U.S. NGA List numbers are from Publication 112.


Thangasseri Point Light, Kollam, May 2017
Wikimedia Creative Commons photo by Shishirdasika
General Sources
Cochin Region Aids to Navigation
Lighthouse information from DGLL, including photos for most of the lighthouses.
Lighthouses of India
A long monograph by R.K. Bhanti with photos and historical accounts, posted by DGLL.
Lighthouses of Kerala
Photos contributed by John Alex.
Lighthouses in India
Photos by various photographers available from Wikimedia.
List of Lighthouses in India
Index to Wikipedia articles.
World of Lighthouses - India
Photos by various photographers available from Lightphotos.net.
Online List of Lights - India
Photos by various photographers posted by Alexander Trabas. Most of the photos from this area are by Douglas Cameron.
Indian Lighthouses
Historic postcard images posted by Michel Forand.
Leuchttürme Asiens auf historischen Postkarten
Historic postcard images posted by Klaus Huelse.
Navionics Charts
Navigation chart for Kerala.

Kovalam Light, Vizhinjam, March 2007
ex-Flickr Creative Commons photo by Ed Mitchell
Thiruvananthapuram District Lighthouses
*** Vizhinjam (Vilinjam, Kovalam)
1972. Active; focal plane 57 m (187 ft); white flash every 15 s. 36 m (118 ft) round stone tower with lantern and gallery, painted with red and white horizontal bands; lantern dome painted red. Ed Mitchell's photo is above right, Trabas has a closeup photo, Seema Krishnakumar has a photo, Deep Goswami has a closeup, a 2009 photo is available, a street view from a nearby beach is available, and Google has a satellite view and a closeup street view. Foundations of a 9th century fort were discovered near the lighthouse in late 2005. Lighthouse Beach, stretching to the north toward Kovalam, is a popular tourist attraction, and as a result this lighthouse is one of the most visited lighthouses of southern India. In September 2012 officials announced plans to develop the station further as a tourist attraction. After some delays these plans are going forward, and in September 2014 the visiting hours at the lighthouse were extended. Located on a rocky promontory about 10 km (6 mi) northwest of Vizhinjam and 13 km (8 mi) south of Thiruvananthapuram (formerly Trivandrum), the capital of Kerala. Site open, tower open daily. . ARLHS IND-121; Admiralty F0718; NGA 27492.
*** Anjengo (Anchuthengu, Varkala)
1987. Active; focal plane 38 m (125 ft); two white flashes every 20 s. 36 m (118 ft) round concrete tower, painted with black and white horizontal bands. Nithin Murali's 2021 photo is at right, Wikimedia has a photo, a 2009 distant view is available, and Google has a street view and a satellite view. Anjengo (Anjuthengu) is the site of a British East India Company fort dating to 1695. Located just outside the walls of the fort in Anchuthengu (formerly Anjengo) and about 40 km (25 mi) northwest of Thiruvananthapuram. Site open, tower open in late afternoon daily. . ARLHS IND-073; Admiralty F0715; NGA 27502.

Kollam District Lighthouses
*** Thangasseri (Tangasseri) Point (Kollam, Quilan)
1902. Active; focal plane 42 m (138 ft); three white flashes every 15 s. 44 m (144 ft) round masonry tower with lantern and double gallery, painted with red and white spiral bands; 2nd order Fresnel lens. A photo is at the top of this page, another closeup photo is available, Sasheer Raj has a 2008 photo, Saleel Ahsan has a 2016 street view, and Google has a satellite view. The lighthouse was repainted inside and out in 2016 and an elevator was installed (spoiling the historical accuracy of the interior). Thankasseri (or Thangasseri), on the north side of the city of Kollam (formerly spelled Quilon) was an early outpost of the Portuguese, later taken by the Dutch and then by the British. The lighthouse, a beautiful relic of the British Empire, stands on a point of land near the ruins of Portuguese and Dutch forts. Site open, tower open daily. . ARLHS IND-019; Admiralty F0712; NGA 27504.

Anjengo Light, Anchuthengu, February 2021
Google Maps photo by Nithin Murali
*** Kovilthottam (2)
1962 (station established 1953). Active; focal plane 20 m (66 ft); white flash every 5 s. 15 m (49 ft) square masonry tower, painted with black and white horizontal bands; lantern dome painted red. Wikimedia has a 2016 photo, Gireeshkumar Balakrishnannair has a 2017 photo, D.M. Brennan has a distant view, and Google has a street view and a satellite view. Kovilthottam is a small port near Chavara, about 15 km (9 mi) north of Kollam. Accessible by road. Site open, tower open in late afternoon daily. . ARLHS IND-096; Admiralty F0710; NGA 27512.

Alappuzha District Lighthouses
* Valiyazheekkal (Valiazheekkal, Valiyazhikkal)
2021. Active; focal plane 44 m (145 ft); three white flashes every 20 s. 41 m (135) pentagonal concrete tower with lantern and gallery, painted with blue and white horizontal bands. Jyothir Rose has a photo and the view from the beach seen at right, Muhammed Noufal has a more distant street view, and Google has a satellite view. This is India's first pentagonal lighthouse and one of the few with an elevator. Inaugurated in October 2021, the light stands behind a popular beach and marks the entrance to a fishing harbor and intracoastal waterway. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty F0709.
* Thottapally (Tottapally)
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 15 m (49 ft); two white flashes every 10 s. 15 m (49 ft) square skeletal tower painted white. Hari Krishnan has a view across the harbor, another photo is available and Bing has an indistinct satellite view. Located at the north corner of the fishing harbor at Thottapally, a town about 21 km (13 mi) south of Alappuzha. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty F0706.5; NGA 27517.

Valiyazheekkal Light, Valiyazheekkal, February 2021
Google Maps photo by Jyothir Rose
*** Alleppey (Alappuzha)
1862. Active; focal plane 33 m (108 ft); white flash every 15 s. 28 m (92 ft) round masonry tower with lantern and gallery, painted with red and white horizontal bands. Rakesh Barua's photo is at right, John Alex also has a good photo, a good 2007 photo is available, Wikipedia has an article with a good photo by Dr. Ajay Balachandran, Lighthouse Digest has a December 1998 article, Dino Soloman has a street view, and Google has a satellite view. This historic lighthouse has a rare teak spiral stairway. It was painted all white for many years; the red bands were added in 2000. The 150th anniversary of the lighthouse was celebrated in 2012. Located just of the beach in Alappuzha (formerly called Alleppey). Site open, tower daily except Mondays. . ARLHS IND-071; Admiralty F0706; NGA 27516.
* Manakkodam (Manaccur, Andakaranazhi)
1979. Active; focal plane 34 m (112 ft); two white flashes every 10 s. 34 m (112 ft) square cylindrical concrete tower, lower half skeletal and upper half enclosed, with lantern and gallery. Lighthouse painted white; lantern roof painted red. Joseph Baiju has a view from the beach, John Alex has a good photo, Antony Simal has a 2018 photo, Wikimapia has a photo, Hrishi Olickel has a distant street view from the beach, and Google has a satellite view. The lighthouse originally had red bands, but fishermen complained it could be confused with the Cochin Light, so the color patterns of the Alleppey Light and this tower were exchanged in 2000. The lighthouse marks the entrance of a new harbor created by cutting an inlet through a barrier beach to a backwater lagoon. Located inside the inlet, about 12 km (7.5 mi) northwest of Shertalai. Site open, tower closed. ARLHS IND-099; Admiralty F0705; NGA 27520.

Ernakulam District (Cochin Area) Lighthouses
The city of Kochi (long called Cochin in English) is a major seaport with a metropolitan population of more than 2 million. The central section of the city is called Ernakulam and that name has been applied to the surrounding district. The range lights in the harbor are presumably maintained by the Cochin Port Authority.

Ernakulam Channel Range Front (2)
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 16 m (52 ft); quick-flashing white light. This was formerly a 17 m (56 ft) hexagonal skeletal tower painted with red and white horizontal bands. Trabas has Cameron's photo and Google has a satellite view. This is the entrance range for Cochin Harbour. In 2017-18 these range lights were relocated about 85 m (275 ft) northwest; no photos of the new lights are available. Located in the entrance to Cochin harbor, 500 m (0.31 mi) west of the rear light (next entry). This range guides vessels entering Cochin harbor. Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty F0700; NGA 27540.

Alleppey Light, Alleppey, December 2008
Flickr Creative Commons photo by Rakesh Barua
 
Ernakulam Channel Range Rear (2)
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 26 m (85 ft); white light, 2 s on 2 s off. This was formerly a 27 m (89 ft) tapered square skeletal tower painted with red and white horizontal bands. Trabas has Cameron's photo and Google has a satellite view. The tower also carried the rear light of the outbound range (another white light, 2 s on, 2 s off) at a focal plane of 12 m (39 ft). In 2017-18 these range lights were relocated about 85 m (275 ft) northwest; no photos of the new lights are available. Located in the harbor entrance, about 1.25 km (3/4 mi) west of the city's waterfront. Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty F0700.1; NGA 27548.
Ernakulam Outbound Channel Range Front
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 7 m (23 ft); quick-flashing white light. 7 m (23 ft) square skeletal tower painted with red and white horizontal bands. Trabas has Cameron's photo and Google has a satellite view. Located 470 m (0.29 mi) southeast of the rear light (previous entry). This range guides vessels leaving Cochin harbor. Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty F0703; NGA 27544.
Cochin Range Front
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 9 m (30 ft); quick-flashing white light. 9 m (30 ft) square skeletal tower painted with red and white horizontal bands. Trabas has Cameron's photo and Google has a satellite view. This is the second range for vessels approaching the Cochin docks. Located about 300 m (0.2 mi) off the Cochin waterfront. Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty F0702; NGA 27552.
* Cochin Range Rear
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 15 m (49 ft); white light, 2 s on, 2 s off. 15 m (49 ft) square skeletal tower. No photo available but the shadow of the tower is seen in Google's satellite view. Located on the waterfront south of Dunbar Hall Road. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty F0702.1; NGA 27556.
 
* [Fort Kochi Signal Station (Cochin (1-3))]
Date of current structure unknown (station established 1839). Light at this location discontinued in 1979. 3-story square building built on a pyramidal mound and carrying a tall signal mast. Wikimedia has several photos and Google has a satellite view. The British built the port of Cochin in the 1830s. The original light was described as being on a staff on the British fort. In 1868 a massive stone signal station, 27 m (89 ft) in height, was built and a light was carried on the signal mast; an 1882 British India light list describes this tower as being "on a small mound which formed a bastion of the old fort." Wikimedia has a historic photo of this building. According to a Wikipedia article the light was moved to a 25 m (82 ft) steel tower in 1936. There is no evidence that the present signal station building ever carried a light. Located on Beach Road on the south side of entrance to Cochin harbor. Site open, tower closed.
*** Cochin (Kochi, Vypin, Puthuvype) (4)
1979 (station established 1839). Active; focal plane 49 m (161 ft); four white flashes every 20 s. 46 m (151 ft) 8-ribbed, double-shell concrete tower with lantern and double gallery. Lighthouse painted with red and white horizontal bands. A photo is at right, Sasheer Raj has a 2008 photo, Prashobh Balakrishnan has a distant view, DGLL has a page with a photo, Shashank Dhareshwar has a distant street view, Manaf Edavanakad has a closeup street view, and Google has a satellite view. The present lighthouse replaced the historic light station at Fort Kochi (previous entry). Apparently the light was moved because the historic location did not provide enough land for the modern station. Located on Vypin Island north of the harbor entrance; the island is accessible by ferry. Site open, tower open daily execpt Mondays. . ARLHS IND-083; Admiralty F0698; NGA 27528.

Cochin Light, Cochin, September 2021
Google Maps photo by Sanoj p m

Thrissur District Lighthouses
* Azhikode (Periyar River)
1982. Active; focal plane 34 m (112 ft); three white flashes every 20 s. 30 m (98 ft) square cylindrical concrete tower, lower half skeletal and upper half enclosed, with lantern and gallery. Lighthouse painted with black and white horizontal bands; lantern roof painted red. Wikimedia has Dr. Ajay Balachandran's photo, John Alex has contributed a photo, Fahid Kooloth has a 2017 photo, and Google has a satellite view. The lighthouse replaced a small light at the mouth of the Periyar River. Located in Azhikode 8 km (5 mi) west of Kodungallur and 2 km (1.2 mi) north of the river entrance. Site open, tower closed. . ARLHS IND-075; Admiralty F0694.5; NGA 27560.
*** Chetwai
1986. Active; focal plane 33 m (108 ft); two white flashes every 20 s. 30 m (98 ft) round cylindrical concrete tower with lantern and double gallery, painted with red and white horizontal bands. Nikhil Sankar has a 2017 photo, Noufal AbdulKareem has a 2018 photo, John Alex has a good photo, and Google has a satellite view. This lighthouse has a design common to many modern Indian light towers. Located just off the beach south of Chavakkad. Site open, tower open daily in late afternoons. . ARLHS IND-082; Admiralty F0693; NGA 27564.

Manappuram District Lighthouse
* Ponnani (3)
1983 (station established 1937). Active; focal plane 33 m (108 ft); white flash every 15 s. 30 m (98 ft) 12-sided concrete tower, painted with black and white horizontal bands. John Alex has contributed a photo, S. Dhruvaraj has another good photo, a 2017 photo is available, Nousu Thottayi has a 2018 street view (also seen at right), and Google has a satellite view. The original light on a mast was replaced by a skeletal tower in 1948. Located on the outskirts of Ponnani, just south of the Bharathpuzha river entrance. Site open, tower closed. . ARLHS IND-108; Admiralty F0692; NGA 27632.
 

Ponnani Light, Ponnani, October 2018
Google Maps street view by Nousu Thottayi

Kozhikode District Lighthouses
*** Beypore (Chaliyar River, Chaliyam)
1977. Active; focal plane 32 m (105 ft); two white flashes every 15 s. 30 m (98 ft) hexagonal cylindrical concrete block tower with lantern and gallery, painted with red and white horizontal bands. A 2016 photo is available, John Alex has a good photo, Balu Prajeesh has a 2014 closeup, and Google has a satellite view. Located behind the beach and south of the Chaliyar River entrance at Chaliyam, 5 km (3 mi) south of Beypore and about 15 km (9 mi) south of Kozhikode (Calicut). Site open, tower open daily in late afternoons. . ARLHS IND-076; Admiralty F0689; NGA 27636.
* Kozhikode (Calicut)
1907 (station established 1847). Active or perhaps reactivated (probably under local management); focal plane 17 m (56 ft); two white flashes every 6 s. 15 m (49 ft) round cylindrical masonry tower with lantern and gallery, painted white. Rajesh Rao's photo is at right, Sasheer Raj also has a 2008 photo, Wikimedia has a photo, and Bing has a satellite view. The Basel Museum in Switzerland has historic photos of the first and current lighthouses. Interestingly, the original lighthouse was taller at 33 m (108 ft). The status of this lighthouse is uncertain. Wikipedia calls it "defunct," and it is not identified as active on the Cochin Region DGLL page. However, it was listed as active in Admiralty and Indian Notices to Mariners in 2011 and it continues to be listed by the Admiralty and by NGA. Recent beachfront development may obscure its light, if it remains active. Calicut, now called Kozhikode, is the place where the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama landed in India in 1498, inaugurating India's contact with western Europe. Modern Kozhikode is the second largest city in Kerala with a metropolitan population of more that 2 million. Located on Beach Road near the foot of Customs Road in Kozhikode. Site open, tower closed. . ARLHS IND-097; Admiralty F0686; NGA 27640.
*** Kadalur Point (Thikkoti, Sacrifice Rock)
1909. Active; focal plane 57 m (187 ft); white flash every 5 s. 35 m (115 ft) round concrete tower with lantern and gallery, painted with black and white horizontal bands; lantern dome painted red. A 2011 photo is available, Mahfooz Ceecy has a 2017 closeup, and Google has a satellite view. The lighthouse marks dangerous offshore shoals and a rocky reef called Velliyamkallu or Sacrifice Rock. The 100th anniversary of the lighthouse was celebrated in 2009. In September 2012 officials announced plans to develop the station as a tourist attraction. Currently it is not so easy to find; local guidance may be needed. Located on a low promontory 6 km (3.8 mi) northwest of Quilandi near the village of Thikkoti. Accessible by road. Site open, tower open in late afternoons daily except Mondays. . ARLHS IND-013; Admiralty F0682; NGA 27652.

Calicut Light, Calicut, October 2020
Google Maps photo by Rajesh Rao

Mahé District (Union Territory of Puducherry) Lighthouse
Wedged between the Kozhikode and Kannur Districts of Kerala is the town of Mahé or Mayyazhi. France built a fort here in 1724 and the town remained a French colony until after India became independent. In 1954 French India was incorporated into the Indian union as the Union Territory of Puducherry (formerly Pondicherry). Lighthouses of the Puducherry and Karaikal Districts of the territory are described on the Tamil Nadu and Puducherry page.
* Mahé (Mayyazhi) (2)
Date unknown (station established 1885). Active; focal plane 30 m (98 ft); two white flashes every 10 s. 13 m (43 ft) round cylindrical white stone or concrete tower with gallery. A 2016 closeup photo and a view from the beach are available, and Google has a satellite view. The top of the lighthouse is seen in a street view from the riverside walkway. The light here was described for many years as a "white mast on a stone base," and a photo of the pyramidal base is available. Located at the base of the breakwater on the south side of the entrance to the Mahé (Mayyazhi) River. A popular riverside walkway passes the lighthouse. Site open, tower closed. . Admiralty F0678; NGA 27660.

Kannur District Lighthouses
* Tellicherry (Thalassery) (2?)
1903 (station established 1835). Reactivated (inactive ?-2009; probably under local management); focal plane 27 m (89 ft); three white flashes every 9 s. 10 m (33 ft) round cylindrical stone tower with lantern and gallery, painted white; lantern dome painted red. This lighthouse is endangered by shockingly poor maintenance. A March 2009 Notices to Mariners reported this light to be "temporarily extinguished," and photos from that era show the lighthouse apparently abandoned and in poor condition; Eric Lord's excellent 2007 photo is typical. However, the light has been placed back in service; a January 2016 photo shows the tower still in shoddy condition but with a solar panel on the gallery rail. Lisam Ibrahim has a 2019 closeup street view and Google has a satellite view. The lighthouse stands within a fort built in 1708 by the British East India Company. Lights were shown from the fort beginning in 1835 but Findlay's 1879 list mentions only a light shown from the fort's flagpole. Located in Thalassery, as Tellicherry is now called. Site open, tower closed. ARLHS IND-116; Admiralty F0674; NGA 27664.
**** Kannur (Cannanore) (3)
1976 (station established 1903). Active; focal plane 35 m (115 ft); white flash every 10 s. 23 m (75 ft) round concrete tower with gallery and a small lantern, painted red with one white horizontal band. Sanand Karunakaran's photo is at right, Mohamed Salim has a good closeup photo, Wikimedia has a photo, Lightphotos.net has a closeup, and Google has a satellite view and a 2017 street view. Kannur (formerly called Cannanore) is the largest city of North Kerala with a metropolitan population of more than 1.6 million. is The first Cannanore lighthouses were at Fort St. Angelo, an early 16th century Portuguese fort. Lanterns were shown from the fort walls as early as 1843. A permanent light was mounted on a pedestal on the walls of the fort in 1903 and moved to a steel mast in 1939. A new lighthouse museum was completed next to the lighthouse in April 2015; a 1st order Fresnel lens and other lighthouse artifacts are on display. Located on a rocky promontory about 2 km (1.25 mi) northwest of the fort and of Kannur harbor. Site open, museum open daily, tower open to guided tours from the museum. . ARLHS IND-079; Admiralty F0672; NGA 27668.

Kannur Light, Kannur, October 2006
Flickr Creative Commons photo by Sanand Karunakaran
* Azhikkal (Azhikal, Azhikode)
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 27 m (89 ft); two white flashes every 8 s. Approx. 24 m (79 ft) round concrete tower, painted with black and white horizontal bands. No lantern. George Skaria has a 2017 photo, Shiju Klal also has a 2017 photo, a 2022 closeup is available, and Google has a satellite view. We need information on the history of this poorly-known lighthouse, often confused with the Azhikode lighthouse at the Periyar River (see above). Located on the south side of the entrance to the Valapattanam River estuary at Azhikkal, a village about 8 km (5 mi) north of Kannur. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty F0671; NGA 27672.
Mount Dilli (Kotte Kunnu, Ezhimala)
1979. Active; focal plane 70 m (230 ft); two white flashes every 20 s. 17 m (56 ft) triangular cylindrical masonry tower with lantern and double gallery, painted white red and white horizontal bands. A radar antenna is mounted atop the lantern. Sudarsh Suriya has a 2017 photo, Suriya Narayanan has a 2018 photo, and Google has a satellite view. The lighthouse is built on a very prominent headland called Kotte Kunnu or Mount Dilli. It's surprising there was no lighthouse built earlier at this location, where the British lighthouse engineer Alan Stevenson had recommended one in 1926. The lighthouse was formerly a tourist attraction, but the area was acquired by the federal government for construction of a naval academy and is now closed. The Indian Naval Academy opened in January 2009. Located on the headland at Ezhimala on the west side of the harbor of Azhikkal. Site and tower closed. ARLHS IND-102; Admiralty F0669.5; NGA 27676.

Kasaragod District Lighthouse
*** Kasaragod (Nellikkunnu)
1984. Active; focal plane 36 m (118 ft); three white flashes every 20 s. 30 m (98 ft) octagonal concrete tower with lantern and gallery, painted with black and white horizontal bands. Wikimedia has a 2012 photo, Rajat Pai has a closeup, a 2016 photo and a fine 2017 photo (also seen at right) are available, Adithya Kumar has a street view from atop the tower, and Google has a satellite view. Located just behind the beach at Kasaragod, the northernmost city of Kerala. Site open, tower open daily in late afternoon. ARLHS IND-090; Admiralty F0668.5; NGA 27680.
 

Kasaragod Light, Kasaragod, April 2017
Google Maps photo by Adnan PMI
 

Information available on lost lighthouses:

Notable faux lighthouses:

Adjoining pages: East: Tamil Nadu and Puducherry | Southwest: Maldives | West: Lakshadweep | North: Karnataka and Goa

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Posted January 30, 2006. Checked and revised July 25, 2022. Lighthouses: 26. Site copyright 2022 Russ Rowlett and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.