Lighthouses of Lebanon
Lebanon is a small country at the eastern end of the Mediterranean
Sea, bordered by Syria to the north and east and by Israel to the south.
Like all of the Middle East, Lebanon was part of the Ottoman (Turkish)
Empire for four centuries until World War I. After that war it was part
of the French Mandate of Syria, but the French detached it from Syria
and governed it separately after 1926. The country became independent
in 1943, during World War II.
Lebanon was torn by a bitter civil war from 1975 to 1990. In July 2006
war broke out on the Israeli frontier and during the five weeks of heavy
fighting both of Beirut's lighthouses were damaged.
The Arabic word for a lighthouse is mnarh or manara (منارة). Ra's is the word for a cape or headland. Lebanese lighthouses
are probably maintained by the port authorities of Tripoli and Beirut.
ARLHS numbers are from the ARLHS
World List of Lights. Admiralty numbers are from volume N of the
Admiralty List of Lights & Fog Signals. U.S. NGA List numbers
are from Publication 113.
- General Sources
of Lights - Lebanon
- Photos by various photographers posted by Alexander Trabas.
- Lighthouses in Lebanon
- Photos by various photographers available from Wikimedia.
- World of Lighthouses - Lebanon
- Photos by various photographers available from Lightphotos.net.
Asiens auf historischen Postkarten
- Historic postcard views posted by Klaus Huelse.
- Navigational chart information for Lebanon.
Manara Lighthouse, Beirut, May 2006
S.H. Mar; used by permission
- South Governate Lighthouses
- Sur (Sour, Tyre) (2)
- Around 1912(?) (station established 1866). Active; focal
plane 15 m (49 ft); three white flashes every 12 s. 12 m (39 ft) round
concrete tower with gallery and four ribs, mounted atop a 2-story
masonry building. Lighthouse painted white. The building is described
as being on an "old fort" in NGA. Hubert Marcueyz has posted a closeup photo,
Trabas has another closeup,
Moustafa Omar has a 2018 photo, Marie Noëlle Taine also has a photo,
François Nour has a street view, and Google has an indistinct satellite
view. Although the date of this lighthouse is not known, it appears to be a twin of the 1912 lighthouse at Akko (Acre) in Israel. Sur, the ancient Phoenicean port of Tyre, is located on
a rocky peninsula jutting into the Mediterranean Sea. The lighthouse
is located at the extreme northwestern tip of the peninsula. Site
open, tower closed. ARLHS LEB-003; Admiralty N5942; NGA 21192.
- Az Zahrani Power Station
- Date unknown. Active; focal plane 56 m (184 ft); red flash every 2 s. The light must be mounted on one of the two tall smokestacks of the Zahrani Power Station. The stacks are painted with red and white horizontal bands. A photo is available and Google has a satellite view. The Zahrani plant burns liquefied natural gas. Located at the power plant about 8 km (5 mi) south of Saida. Site and tower closed. Admiralty N5941; NGA 21152.
- Saida (Az Zirah, Zeeri, Sidon (3))
- Date unknown (1930s?). Inactive; still listed with focal
plane 10 m (33 ft); red flash every 3 s. Approx. 6 m (20 ft) round
tower with lantern and gallery, mounted on a square concrete platform.
Lighthouse painted with horizontal bands, red and white or black and
white. Philip Hayward's photo is at right, another good 2007 photo
is available, also a third photo,
Wikimedia has a view from the shore, Google has a street view, and Bing has a satellite view. One photographer describes the lighthouse as abandoned,
and it does not appear to have been active for many years. Saida is the ancient Phoenicean
port of Sidon. The first lighthouse, established in 1866, was a lantern
on a keeper's house. "Az Zirah" and "Zeeri" appear
to be corruptions of jezirat (جزيرة), the Arabic word for an island.
Located on a rocky island just off the entrance to the harbor of Saida.
Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty N5940;
- * Sidon (2) (Sea Castle, Kalaat Saida al-Bahriya)
- Date unknown. Inactive. Approx. 19 m (62 ft) partially ruined stone tower. The Sidon Sea Castle was built first by Crusader (Christian) knights in the 13th century; it was partially demolished and rebuilt several times over the centuries. Findlay's 1879 light list places the Sidon light on Az Zirah, but Jenkins's 1904 list places the light (two red lights, one above the other) at a height of 62 ft on a "red stone tower about 200 yds from the south end" of Az Zirah. This appears to describe the Sea Castle, although the castle is about 500 m (550 yd) from Az Zirah. The west tower of the castle formerly had a small tripod tower that may have carried a light; it is seen in Wikimedia's many photos of the castle including the one on the Lightphotos.net page. However the tripod appears to be missing in Shian Gao's 2016 street view. Bing has a satellite view of the tower. Located on an island in Saida's traditional harbor, connected to the waterfront by a causeway. Site and tower open.
Saida Light, Saida, October 2007
Flickr Creative Commons photo
by Philip Hayward
Beirut Governate Lighthouses
- * Beirut (Ra's Bayrut, Beyrouth) (2)
- 1957 (station established 1840s). Inactive since 2003. 27 m (89 ft) octagonal tower with lantern and a circular observation room.
Tower painted with black and white horizontal bands. Charles Nouÿrit's photo is at right, Lois
Bridenback has a 2008 photo, a 2011 photo is available,
and Google has a satellite view. Klaus Huelse has a postcard
view of the original lighthouse. The second lighthouse, built in 1957, was out of service between 1982 and 1990 while Lebanon was torn by civil war and conflict with Israel. It was
deactivated in 2003 when a high-rise building, the Manara
Tower, was built in front of it. Rabih Ammash, the businessman who built the
new building, contributed the funds to build the replacement lighthouse (next
entry). The old lighthouse continued in use as a relay station for the state-owned
Radio Liban. On 10 August 2006 Israeli aircraft shot off the radio station's
antenna and damaged the top of the lighthouse. This damage apparently has been repaired. Members of the Chebli family have been keepers of all Beirut's lighthouses since the beginning. Located on a steep slope above the Corniche,
Beirut's famous waterfront boulevard, about 400 m (1/4 mi) west of Ra's Bayrut,
a cape projecting into the Mediterranean. Site open, tower status unknown.
- * Beirut (Ra's Bayrut, Beyrouth) (3)
- 2003 (station established 1840s). Active (?); focal plane 52 m (171 ft);
two white flashes every 10 s. Approx. 50 m (164 ft) round concrete tower with lantern
and a circular observation room, centered on a square 2-story building.
Originally the tower was unpainted gray concrete, but has been painted recently with red and white horizontal bands as seen in an October 2018 photo by Jamil Younes. S.H. Mar's photo is at the top of
this page, Trabas has an excellent photo, Wayne Krieter has a 2018 photo, a 2008 photo and
another 2008 photo are available, and Google has a street view and a good satellite view. This new and very prominent lighthouse was inaugurated 25 September
2003. Libanvision has an article (in French, near the bottom of the page) about the construction of the lighthouse.
Another photo appears at the top of this page. On 15 July 2006 an Israeli
air raid damaged the lantern and top of the lighthouse; Mathieu Baudier
has a closeup photo taken on August 26 that shows this damage. The lighthouse has since been
repaired. Note: light lists still describe the older lighthouse. Members of the Chebli family have been keepers of all Beirut's lighthouses since the beginning. Located on the point of Ra's (Cape) Bayrut, on the Beirut Corniche, about 400 m (1/4 mi) northwest of the former lighthouse.
Site open, tower status unknown. Operator: Port
of Beirut. ARLHS LEB-002;
Admiralty N5934; NGA 21116.
Old Beirut Light, Beirut, January 2009
Flickr Creative Commons photo by Charles Nouÿrit
- * Beirut (Beyrouth) North
- Date unknown (station established 1895). Inactive at least since World War II. Approx. 13 m (43 ft) round concrete tower
with gallery and four ribs, topped by a signal mast and rising
from a 2-story building. No photo available but Google has an indistinct satellite view. Endangered: the building is abandoned and falling into ruin. The original lighthouse was described in 1920 as a stone tower. Located
on the north breakwater of an inner basin at the west end of Beirut
harbor, near the International Exhibition Center. Accessible by walking
the pier. Site open, tower closed.
North Governate Lighthouses
Ramkin (Ramkin Island, Île Ramkine) (2)
- Date unknown (station established 1864). Inactive but listed with focal plane 22
m (72 ft); white flash every 3.3 s. Approx. 14 m square cylindrical
masonry tower, rising from a 1-story masonry keeper's house. The
light was displayed from a short post atop the tower. The lighthouse
is unpainted yellow brick. Clearly endangered. The buildings
of the station appear to be abandoned and in poor condition. Wayne Krieter's photo is at right, Haitham Massoud has a distant view, and Bing
has a satellite view. Ramkin Island is the westernmost of a chain of islets,
summits of an underwater ridge, that extends northwestward from
the city of Tripoli. Located about 5 km (3 mi) northwest of the
city. Accessible only by boat. Site and tower closed. Operator:
Port of Tripoli. ARLHS LEB-001; Admiralty N5926; NGA 21048.
- ** Burj es-Sabaa (Tower of
- Date unknown. Inactive.
21 m (69 ft) unpainted stone fortress. The Tower
of Lions was built in the late 1400s by the Mameluk Sultan Qa'it Bey
as part of the defenses of Tripoli against attack by the Ottomans.
Nora Kalanjian has a photo, a more distant view is available, and Google has a satellite view, but no photos have been found that show a light on the building. The light has been dropped from the Admiralty list. Located at the edge of the Tripoli harbor district. Site open; the
tower is preserved as a historical monument and is probably open,
but we know nothing of the schedule. ex-Admiralty N5927.6; NGA 21060.
Information available on lost lighthouses:
Jazirat Ramkin Light, Tripoli, July 2018
Google Plus photo by Wayne Krieter
Notable faux lighthouses:
Adjoining pages: North: Syria | South: Israel
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Posted May 31, 2007. Checked and revised March 14, 2019.
Lighthouses: 9. Site copyright 2019 Russ Rowlett and the University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill.