Re: Calling Jesus God in... (Granville Sharp)

From: John Baima (
Date: Wed Sep 27 1995 - 11:27:36 EDT

>Carl W. Conrad

>(a) Personally I would not argue about these particular passages in Titus,
>2 Peter and John's gospel; I think that they do indeed imply the divinity
>of Jesus, although I would like to hear more about the Granville-Sharp rule
>and the basis upon which its validity has been asserted and argued.

Okay, here it is from Sharp:

When the copulative kai/ connects two nouns of the same case, [viz.
nouns (either substantive or adjective, or participles), of personal
description, respecting office, dignity, affinity, or connexion, and
attributes, properties, or qualities, good or ill], if the article o(,
or any of its cases, precedes the first of the said nouns or
participles, and is not repeated before the second noun or participle,
the latter always relates to the same person that is expressed or
described by the first noun or participle: i.e. it denotes a farther
description of the first-named person . . .

The "Granville Sharp Rule" with the article-noun-kai-noun needs
"nouns" which:

(1) neither is impersonal
(2) neither is plural
(3) neither is a proper name

As implausible as the rule seems on first blush, there are no contrary
examples in the NT.

Some may recognize that I wrote one of the Bible Software packages
(Bible Windows) and one of the example searches looks for Granville
Sharp constructions.

There were a set of articles which may be of interest by Kuehne, in the
_Journal of Theology_ starting with the Sept 1973 issue. One of the points
which are examined is the understanding of o( megaj qeoj kai swthr in
Patristic literature. The assertion is made that this phrase always referes
to one person in the patristics when the sense can be determined. I don't
have the time right now, but it would be an interesting exercise to search
the TLG for other examples of this phrase in pre-christian literature. This
used to be (perhaps still is) a passion with Dan Wallace of Dallas Seminary.

-John Baima

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