Date: Thu Sep 30 1999 - 09:43:37 EDT

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To: "Carl W. Conrad" <>
From: Carlton Winbery <>
Subject: Re: Romans 5:12
Cc: Biblical Greek <>

Alan Simons wrote;
>>My question is about the time factor of the aorist
>>sinned in Romans 5:12 from the view point of aspect. I
>>was discussing this verse with a friend. We both were
>>taught that the aorist was a past action at a point in
>>time which is probably not held to now.
>>Also, I would like to know the methodology one uses to
>>determine the time factors in this passage from the
>>aspect position.

Carl Conrad replied;
>These aorists are indicative; I think that MOST interpreters would
>understand them as referring to past time. I suppose that some might argue
>that in the last clause, EF' hWi PANTES hHMARTON, hHMARTON might be gnomic
>("they have sinned, they always do sin"), my own sense is that what is
>underscored is the factuality of universal guilt as a state achieved--so
>that this aorist might be seen as 'resultative' and even be translated as a
>perfect tense.
There was also a discussion somewhere in times past of the similar
espression in Rom. 3:23. I would agree with Carl that the element in the
context that is important is the sense of an action that has results. In
the Robertson tradition, some call this "culminative," i.e., the emphasis
is on the end of the action or its results. I would not argue against the
"gnomic" since this does point to a universal condition. In R.3.22-23 this
is even more attractive since it explains the reason there is no
"distinction" (DIASTOLH), "for all sin and come short of the glory of God."
There is also here a clear case of resultative action. You could argue
persuasively for either.

Carlton L. Winbery
Fogleman Prof. of Religion
Louisiana College Box 612
Pineville, LA 71359
Phones 318 487 7241, Home 318 448 6103

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