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Vascular Flora of the Southeastern United States
Hardin, Massey, Radford, Thieret, eds.

Copyright - James W. Hardin, Ph. D., 1998, 1999. All Rights Reserved.



1. Zamia integrifolia L.f. in Aiton. COONTIE, FLORIDA ARROWROOT. Evergreen, dioecious plants with essentially subterranean, tuber-like stem. Leaves 1-8(12), pinnately compound, alternate and clustered at apex, 3-10 dm long; leaflets 2-20 pairs, linear, 8-25 cm long, 3-15 mm wide, coriaceous, midrib lacking, veins parallel, margin entire or sparsely serrate and usually revolute. Cones terminal, long-peduncled, 4-20 cm long, rusty pubescent; pollen cones narrowly cylindrical with flattened sporophylls bearing numerous, small abaxial sporangia; pollination by beetles; ovulate cones broadly cylindrical with more or less peltate sporophylls spiraled on the axis but appearing in vertical rows, exposed flattened surfaces valvate and hexagonal or rhomboidal; ovules 2 per sporophyll. Seed cone elongating and exposing the seeds; seeds with fleshy outer coat, pink, turning bright yellow-orange to red-orange, cylindrical and angled, tapered to the micropylar end, ca 2 cm long. (n=8) Dry sandy pinelands, dunes, wet hammocks, shell mounds; cp. Ga, and Fla. Incl. Z. silvicola Small; Z. umbrosa Small--S. A polymorphic species with both genetic and environmental components of variation. The family Cycadaceae s. lat., used by earlier authors, has been divided into four families, including the Zamiaceae which contains all the Western Hemisphere cycads.