Section A. Structure and Specialized Characters:
X. Gynoecium

[A. Gynoecial Parts] [B. Gynoecial Types] [C. Carpel Parts] [D. Carpel Types] [E. Stigma Types] [F. Style Types] [G. Ovule Parts] [H. Ovule Types]

A. Gynoecial Parts (Figure 6-8-2)

Carpel. Female sporophyll within flower; floral organ that bears ovules in angiosperms.
Carpopodium. Short, thick, pistillate stalk.
Locule. Ovary cavity.
Ovary. Ovule-bearing part of pistil.
Placenta. Ovule-bearing region of ovary wall.
Stigma. Pollen-receptive portion of pistil.
Stipe. Pistillate stalk.
Style. Attenuated, non-ovule-bearing portion of pistil between stigma and ovary.

B. Gynoecial Types (Figure 6-8-1)
(Classification based on fusion)

Apocarpous. With carpels separate.
Semicarpous. With ovaries of adjacent carpels partly fused, stigmas and styles separate.
Syncarpous. With stigmas, styles, and ovaries completely fused.
Synovarious. With ovaries of adjacent carpels completely fused, styles and stigmas separate.
Synstylovarious. With ovaries and styles of adJacent carpels completely fused, stigmas separate.
Unicarpellous or Stylodious. With solitary, free carpel in gynoecium

C. Carpel Parts (Figure 6-8-2)

Funiculus. Stalk by which ovule is attached to placenta.
Locule. Ovary cavity.
Ovary. Ovule-bearing part of carpel in simple ovary.
Ovule. Embryonic seed consisting of integument(s) and nucellus.
Placenta. Ovule-bearing region of ovary wall.
Stigma. Pollen receptive portion of carpel.
Stipe, Podogyne, Carpopodium. Basal stalk.
Style. Attenuated portion of carpel between stigma and ovary.

D. Carpel Types (Figure 6-8-3)
Classification based on presence or absence of style and stipe)

Astylocarpellous. Without a style and a stipe.
Astylocarpepodic. Without a style, with a stipe.
Stylocarpepodic. With a style and stipe.
Stylocarpellous. With a style and without a stipe, the normal carpel.

E. Stigma Types (Figure 6-8-4)
(Classification based on shape)

Capitate. Head-like.
Clavate. Club-shaped.
Crested or Cristate. With a terminal ridge or tuft.
Decurrent. Elongate, extending downward.
Diffuse. Spread over a wide surface.
Discoid. Disc-like.
Fimbriate. Fringed.
Lineate. In lines, stigmatic surface linear.
Lobed. Divided into lobes.
Plumose. Feather-like.
Terete. Cylindrical and elongate.

F. Style Types (Figure 6-8-5)
(Classification based primarily on shape)

Astylous. Style absent.
Conduplicate. Folded with a longitudinal groove.
Cristate. Crested.
Eccentric. Off-center style.
Fimbriate. Fringed.
Flabellate. Fan-shaped.
Geniculate. Bent abruptly.
Gynobasic. Attached at base of ovary in central depression.
Heterostylous. With styles of different sizes or lengths or shapes within a species.
Homostylous. With styles of same sizes or lengths and shapes.
Involute. With margins infolded longitudinally, with groove present.
Petaloid. Petal-like.
Stylopodic. With a stylopodium or discoid base, as in the Apiaceae.
Terete. Cylindrical and elongate.
Tuberculate. With hard, swollen, persistent base or tubercle.
Umbraculate. Umbrella-shaped, as in Sarracenia.

G. Ovule Parts (Figure 6-8-2)

Chalaza. End of ovule opposite micropyle.
Embryo Sac. Female gametophyte.
Integuments. Outer covering of ovule; embryonic seed coat.
Micropyle. Hole through integument(s).
Nucellus. Female sporangium within ovule; megasporangium in seed plants.
Raphe. Longitudinal ridge on outer integument.

H. Ovule Types (Figure 6-8-3)
(Classification based on orientation of ovule body in relation to the funiculus and micropyle)

Amphitropous. With body bent or curved on both sides so that the micropyle is near the medially attached funiculus.
Anatropous. With body completely inverted so that funiculus is attached basally near adjoining micropyle area.
Campylotropous. With body bent or curved on one side so that micropyle is near medially attached funiculus.
Hemianatropous or Hemitropous. With body half-inverted so that funiculus is attached near middle with micropyle terminal and at right angles.
Orthotropous or Atropous. With straight body so that funicular attachment is at one end and micropyle at other.