Section A. Structure and Specialized Characters:
XI. Fruits

[A. Fruit Parts] [B. Fruit Structural Types]

A. Fruit Parts

Carpophore. Floral axis extension between adjacent carpels, as in the Apiaceae.
Ectocarp or Exocarp. Outermost layer of pericarp.
Endocarp. Innermost differentiated layer of pericarp.
Funiculus. Seed stalk.
Mericarp. A portion of fruit that seemingly matured as a separate fruit.
Mesocarp. Middle layer of pericarp.
Pericarp. Fruit wall.
Placenta. Region of attachment of seeds on inner fruit wall.
Replum. Persistent septum after dehiscence of fruits, as in the Brassicaceae.
Retinaculum, Jaculator or Echma. A persistent indurated, hook-like funiculus in the fruits of Acanthaceae.
Rostellum or Beak. Persistent stylar base on fruit.
Seed. A matured ovule.
Septum or Dissepiment. Partition.

B. Fruit Structural Types
(Classification based primarily on origin, texture, and dehiscence; types grouped as simple, aggregate, multiple, accessory.)

1. Simple Fruits
(Fruit derived from the ovary of a solitary pistil in a single flower)

a. Dry Indehiscent Fruit Types (Figure 6-9-1)
(Fruits that do not split open at maturity)

Achene. A one-seeded, dry, indehiscent fruit with seed attached to fruit wall at one point only, derived from a one-loculed superior ovary.
Balausta. Many-seeded, many- loculed indehiscent fruit with a tough, leathery pericarp, as in Punica.
Calybium. A hard one-loculed dry fruit derived from an inferior ovary, as in Quercus.
Capsule, Indehiscent. Dry fruit derived from a two- or more loculed ovary, as in Peplis.
Caryopsis or Grain. A one-seeded dry, indehiscent fruit with the seed coat adnate to the fruit wall, derived from a one-loculed superior ovary.
Cypsela. An achene derived from a one-loculed, inferior ovary.
Nut. A one-seeded, dry, indehiscent fruit with a hard pericarp, usually derived from a one-loculed ovary.
Nutlet. A small nut.
Samara. A winged, dry fruit.
Utricle. A small, bladdery or inflated. one-seeded. dry fruit.

b. Dry Dehiscent Fruit Types (Figure 6-9-2)
(Fruits that split open at maturity)

Capsule. Dry, dehiscent fruit derived from a compound ovary of 2 or more carpels.
Diplotegium. A pyxis derived from an inferior ovary.
Follicle. A dry, dehiscent fruit derived from one carpel that splits along one suture.
Legume. A usually dry, dehiscent fruit derived from one carpel that splits along two sutures.
Loment. A legume that separates transversely between seed sections.
Silicle. A dry, dehiscent fruit derived from two or more carpels that dehisce along two sutures and which has a persistent partition after dehiscence and is as broad as, or broader, than long.
Silique. A silicle type fruit that is longer than broad.

c. Capsule Types (Figure 6-9-3)
(Classification based on type of dehiscence)

Acrocidal Capsule. One that dehisces through terminal slits, or fissures, as in Staphylea.
Anomalicidal or Rupturing Capsule. One that dehisces irregularly, as in Ammannia.
Basicidal Capsule. One that dehisces through basal slits or fissures, as in some species of Aristolochia.
Circumscissle Capsule or Pyxis. One that dehisces circumferentially, as in Plantago.
Denticidal Capsule. One that dehisces apically, leaving a ring of teeth, as in Cerastium.
Indehiscent Capsule. One that does not dehisce at maturity, as in Peplis.
Loculicidal Capsule. One that dehisces longitudinally into the cavity of the locule, as in Epilobium.
Operculate Capsule. One that dehisces through pores, each of which is covered by a flap, cap, or lid, as in Papaver.
Poricidal Capsule. One that dehisces through pores, as in Triodanis.
Septicidal Capsule. One that dehisces longitudinally through the septa, as in Penstemon.
Valvular or Septifragal Capsule. One with valves breaking away from the septa, as in Ipomoea.

d. Schizocarpic Fruit Types (Figure 6-9-4)
(Fruits derived from a simple, two- or more-locular compound ovary in which the locules separate at fruit maturity simulating fruits derived from the ovaries of simple pistils)

Schizocarpic Achenes. Separating achenes which are one-seeded, dry, indehiscent fruits with seed attached to fruit wall at one point only, derived from a superior ovary, as in Sidalcea.
Schizocarpic Berries. Separating berries which have a fleshy pericarp, as in Phytolacca.
Schizocarpic Carcerules. Separating carcerules which are dry, fewseeded, indehiscent locules, as in Althaea.
Schizocarpic Follicles. Separating follicles which are dry, dehiscent fruits derived from one carpel, splitting along one suture, as in Apocynaceae.
Schizocarpic Mericarps, Cremocarp, or Carpopodium. Separating mericarps which are dry, seed-like fruits derived from an inferior ovary, as in the Apiaceae.
Schizocarpic Nutlets, Cenobium. Separating nutlets which are dry,indehiscent 4-parted fruits with a hard pericarp around a gynobasic style, as in the Boraginaceae and Lamiaceae.
Schizocarpic Samaras. Separating samaras which are winged, dry fruits, as in Acer.

e. Fleshy Fruit Types(Figure 6-9-5)

Amphisarca. A berry-like succulent fruit with a crustaceous or woody rind, as in Lagenaria.
Berry. Fleshy fruit, with succulent pericarp, as in Vitis.
Drupe. A fleshy fruit with a stony endocarp, as in Prunus.
Drupelet. A small drupe, as in Rubus.
Hesperidium. A thick-skinned septate berry with the bulk of the fruit derived from glandular hairs, as in Citrus.
Pepo. A berry with a leathery nonseptate rind derived from an inferior ovary, as in Cucurbita.
Pyrene. Fleshy fruit with each seed surrounded by a bony endocarp, as in Ilex.

2. Aggregate Fruit Types (Conocarpium) (Figure 6-10-1)
(A group of separate fruits developed from carpels of one flower)

Achenecetum. An aggregation of achenes, as in Ranunculus.
Baccacetum or Etaerio. An aggregation of berries, as in Actaea.
Drupecetum. An aggregation of drupelets, as in Rubus.
Follicetum. An aggregation of follicles, as in Caltha.
Samaracetum. An aggregation of samaras, as in Liriodendron.

3. Multiple Fruit Types
(Fruits on a common axis that are usually coalesced and derived from the ovaries of several flowers)

Bibacca. A fused double berry, as in Lonicera.
Sorosis. Fruits on a common axis that are usually coalesced and derived from the ovaries of several flowers, as in Morus.
Syconium. A syncarp with the achenes borne on the inside of a hollowed-out receptacle or peduncle, as in Ficus.

4. Accessory Fruit Types (Figure 6-10-2)
(Fruits derived from simple or compound ovaries and some non-ovarian tissues, as the hypanthium; classification arranged alphabetically; types of accessory structures given in parentheses below.)

Bur (Involucre). Cypsela enclosed in dry involucre, as in Xanthium.
Coenocarpium (Various Structures). Multiple fruit derived from ovaries, floral parts, and receptacles of many coalesced flowers, as in Ananas.
Diclesium (Calyx). Achene or nut surrounded by a persistent calyx, as in Mirabalis
Glans (Involucre). Nut subtended by a cupulate, dry involucre, as in Quercus.
Hip or Cynarrhodion (Receptacle and Hypanthium). An aggregation of achenes surrounded by an urceolate receptacle and hypanthium, as in Rosa.
Pome (Receptacle and Hypanthium). A berry-like fruit, adnate to a fleshy receptacle, with cartilaginous endocarp, as in Malus.
Pseudocarp (Receptacle). An aggregation of achenes embedded in a fleshy receptacle, as in Fragaria.
Pseudodrupe (Involucre). Two-four loculed nut surrounded by a fleshy involucre, as in Juglans.
Syconium (Receptacle, possibly peduncle). Multiple fruit surrounded by a hollow, compound, fleshy receptacle, as in Ficus.
Tryma (Involucre). Two-four loculed nut surrounded by a dehiscent involucre at maturity, as in most species of Carya.
Winged Nut (Bract). Nut enclosed in a winglike bract, as in Carpinus.