[ PREVIOUS SUBSECTION ]
[ NEXT SUBSECTION ]
Section A. Structure and Specialized Characters:
[A. Fruit Parts] [B. Fruit Structural Types]
- Carpophore. Floral axis extension between adjacent carpels, as in the Apiaceae.
- Ectocarp or Exocarp. Outermost layer of pericarp.
- Endocarp. Innermost differentiated layer of pericarp.
- Funiculus. Seed stalk.
- Mericarp. A portion of fruit that seemingly matured as a separate fruit.
- Mesocarp. Middle layer of pericarp.
- Pericarp. Fruit wall.
- Placenta. Region of attachment of seeds on inner fruit wall.
- Replum. Persistent septum after dehiscence of fruits, as in the Brassicaceae.
- Retinaculum, Jaculator or Echma. A persistent indurated, hook-like funiculus in the fruits of Acanthaceae.
- Rostellum or Beak. Persistent stylar base on fruit.
- Seed. A matured ovule.
- Septum or Dissepiment. Partition.
B. Fruit Structural Types
(Classification based primarily on origin, texture, and dehiscence; types grouped as simple, aggregate, multiple, accessory.)
1. Simple Fruits
(Fruit derived from the ovary of a solitary pistil in a single flower)
a. Dry Indehiscent Fruit Types (Figure 6-9-1)
(Fruits that do not split open at maturity)
- Achene. A one-seeded, dry, indehiscent fruit with seed attached to fruit wall at one point only, derived from a one-loculed superior ovary.
- Balausta. Many-seeded, many- loculed indehiscent fruit with a tough, leathery pericarp, as in Punica.
- Calybium. A hard one-loculed dry fruit derived from an inferior ovary, as in Quercus.
- Capsule, Indehiscent. Dry fruit derived from a two- or more loculed ovary, as in Peplis.
- Caryopsis or Grain. A one-seeded dry, indehiscent fruit with the seed coat adnate to the fruit wall, derived from a one-loculed superior ovary.
- Cypsela. An achene derived from a one-loculed, inferior ovary.
- Nut. A one-seeded, dry, indehiscent fruit with a hard pericarp, usually derived from a one-loculed ovary.
- Nutlet. A small nut.
- Samara. A winged, dry fruit.
- Utricle. A small, bladdery or inflated. one-seeded. dry fruit.
b. Dry Dehiscent Fruit Types (Figure 6-9-2)
(Fruits that split open at maturity)
- Capsule. Dry, dehiscent fruit derived from a compound ovary of 2 or more carpels.
- Diplotegium. A pyxis derived from an inferior ovary.
- Follicle. A dry, dehiscent fruit derived from one carpel that splits along one suture.
- Legume. A usually dry, dehiscent fruit derived from one carpel that splits along two sutures.
- Loment. A legume that separates transversely between seed sections.
- Silicle. A dry, dehiscent fruit derived from two or more carpels that dehisce along two sutures and which has a persistent partition after dehiscence and is as broad as, or broader, than long.
- Silique. A silicle type fruit that is longer than broad.
c. Capsule Types (Figure 6-9-3)
(Classification based on type of dehiscence)
- Acrocidal Capsule. One that dehisces through terminal slits, or fissures, as in Staphylea.
- Anomalicidal or Rupturing Capsule. One that dehisces irregularly, as in Ammannia.
- Basicidal Capsule. One that dehisces through basal slits or fissures, as in some species of Aristolochia.
- Circumscissle Capsule or Pyxis. One that dehisces circumferentially, as in Plantago.
- Denticidal Capsule. One that dehisces apically, leaving a ring of teeth, as in Cerastium.
- Indehiscent Capsule. One that does not dehisce at maturity, as in Peplis.
- Loculicidal Capsule. One that dehisces longitudinally into the cavity of the locule, as in Epilobium.
- Operculate Capsule. One that dehisces through pores, each of which is covered by a flap, cap, or lid, as in Papaver.
- Poricidal Capsule. One that dehisces through pores, as in Triodanis.
- Septicidal Capsule. One that dehisces longitudinally through the septa, as in Penstemon.
- Valvular or Septifragal Capsule. One with valves breaking away from the septa, as in Ipomoea.
d. Schizocarpic Fruit Types (Figure 6-9-4)
(Fruits derived from a simple, two- or more-locular compound ovary in which the locules separate at fruit maturity simulating fruits derived from the ovaries of simple pistils)
- Schizocarpic Achenes. Separating achenes which are one-seeded, dry, indehiscent fruits with seed attached to fruit wall at one point only, derived from a superior ovary, as in Sidalcea.
- Schizocarpic Berries. Separating berries which have a fleshy pericarp, as in Phytolacca.
- Schizocarpic Carcerules. Separating carcerules which are dry, fewseeded, indehiscent locules, as in Althaea.
- Schizocarpic Follicles. Separating follicles which are dry, dehiscent fruits derived from one carpel, splitting along one suture, as in Apocynaceae.
- Schizocarpic Mericarps, Cremocarp, or Carpopodium. Separating mericarps which are dry, seed-like fruits derived from an inferior ovary, as in the Apiaceae.
- Schizocarpic Nutlets, Cenobium. Separating nutlets which are dry,indehiscent 4-parted fruits with a hard pericarp around a gynobasic style, as in the Boraginaceae and Lamiaceae.
- Schizocarpic Samaras. Separating samaras which are winged, dry fruits, as in Acer.
- Amphisarca. A berry-like succulent fruit with a crustaceous or woody rind, as in Lagenaria.
- Berry. Fleshy fruit, with succulent pericarp, as in Vitis.
- Drupe. A fleshy fruit with a stony endocarp, as in Prunus.
- Drupelet. A small drupe, as in Rubus.
- Hesperidium. A thick-skinned septate berry with the bulk of the fruit derived from glandular hairs, as in Citrus.
- Pepo. A berry with a leathery nonseptate rind derived from an inferior ovary, as in Cucurbita.
- Pyrene. Fleshy fruit with each seed surrounded by a bony endocarp, as in Ilex.
2. Aggregate Fruit Types (Conocarpium) (Figure 6-10-1)
(A group of separate fruits developed from carpels of one flower)
- Achenecetum. An aggregation of achenes, as in Ranunculus.
- Baccacetum or Etaerio. An aggregation of berries, as in Actaea.
- Drupecetum. An aggregation of drupelets, as in Rubus.
- Follicetum. An aggregation of follicles, as in Caltha.
- Samaracetum. An aggregation of samaras, as in Liriodendron.
3. Multiple Fruit Types
(Fruits on a common axis that are usually coalesced and derived from the ovaries of several flowers)
- Bibacca. A fused double berry, as in Lonicera.
- Sorosis. Fruits on a common axis that are usually coalesced and derived from the ovaries of several flowers, as in Morus.
- Syconium. A syncarp with the achenes borne on the inside of a hollowed-out receptacle or peduncle, as in Ficus.
4. Accessory Fruit Types (Figure 6-10-2)
(Fruits derived from simple or compound ovaries and some non-ovarian tissues, as the hypanthium; classification arranged alphabetically; types of accessory structures given in parentheses below.)
- Bur (Involucre). Cypsela enclosed in dry involucre, as in Xanthium.
- Coenocarpium (Various Structures). Multiple fruit derived from ovaries, floral parts, and receptacles of many coalesced flowers, as in Ananas.
- Diclesium (Calyx). Achene or nut surrounded by a persistent calyx, as in Mirabalis
- Glans (Involucre). Nut subtended by a cupulate, dry involucre, as in Quercus.
- Hip or Cynarrhodion (Receptacle and Hypanthium). An aggregation of achenes surrounded by an urceolate receptacle and hypanthium, as in Rosa.
- Pome (Receptacle and Hypanthium). A berry-like fruit, adnate to a fleshy receptacle, with cartilaginous endocarp, as in Malus.
- Pseudocarp (Receptacle). An aggregation of achenes embedded in a fleshy receptacle, as in Fragaria.
- Pseudodrupe (Involucre). Two-four loculed nut surrounded by a fleshy involucre, as in Juglans.
- Syconium (Receptacle, possibly peduncle). Multiple fruit surrounded by a hollow, compound, fleshy receptacle, as in Ficus.
- Tryma (Involucre). Two-four loculed nut surrounded by a dehiscent involucre at maturity, as in most species of Carya.
- Winged Nut (Bract). Nut enclosed in a winglike bract, as in Carpinus.
[ PREVIOUS SUBSECTION ]
[ NEXT SUBSECTION ]