Section B. General Characters and Character States:
III. Shapes

[A. Shapes--Plane and Solid] [B. Apices and Bases] [C. Margins]

A. Shapes--Plane and Solid (Figure 6-13-2)

1. Symmetric Figures. Based on terminology in Taxon (Vol. 11) and Stearn (1966).

A. Elliptic. With widest axis at midpoint of structure and with margins symmetrically curved.
Plane L/W
a. Narrowly elliptic more than 6:1-3:1
b. Elliptic 2:1-3:2
c. Widely elliptic 6:5
d. Circular 1:1
e. Oblate 5:6
f. Transversely elliptic 2:3-1:2
g. Narrowly transversely elliptic 1:3-1:6 or more

Solid L/D
a. Narrowly ellipsoid more than 6:1-3:1
b. Ellipsoid 2:1-3:2
c. Broadly ellipsoid 6:5
d. Spheroid 1:1
e. Obloid 5:6
f. Transversely ellipsoid 2:3-1:2
g. Lenticular 1:3-1:6 or more
B. Oblong. With widest axis at midpoint of structure and with margins essentially parallel.
Plane L/W
a. Linear more than 12:1
b. Narrowly oblong 6:1-3:1 or lorate
c. Oblong 2:1-3:2
d. Widely oblong 6: 5
e. Square 1:1
f. Transversely widely oblong 5:6
g. Transversely oblong 2:3-1:2
h. Transversely narrowly oblong 1:3-1:6
i. Transversely linear 1:12 or more

Solid L/D
a. Cylindric or terete more than 12:1
b. Narrowly oblong 6:1-3:1
c. Oblong 2:1-3:2
d. Broadly oblong 6:5
e. Cubical 1:1
f. Transversely broadly oblong 5:6
g. Transversely oblong 2:3-1:2
h. Transversely narrowly oblong 1:3-1:6
i. Transversely cylindrical or terete 1:12 or more
C. Ovate. With widest axis below middle and with margins symmetrically curved; egg-shaped.
Plane L/W
a. Lanceolate more than 6:1-3:1
b. Ovate 2:1-3:2
c. Widely ovate 6:5
d. Very widely ovate 1:1
e. Widely depressed ovate 5:6
f. Depressed ovate 2:3-1:2

Solid L/D
a. Lanceoloid more than 6:1-3:1
b. Ovoid 2:1-3:2
c. Broadly ovoid 6:5
d. Very broadly ovoid 1:1
e. Broadly depressed ovoid 5:6
f. Depressed ovoid 2:3-1:2
D. Obovate. Inversely ovate.
Plane L/W
a. Oblanceolate more than 6:1-3:1
b. Obovate 2:1-3:2
c. Widely obovate 6:5
d. Very widely obovate 1:1
e. Widely depressed obovate 5:6
f. Depressed obovate 2:3-1:2

Solid L/D
a. Oblanceoloid more than 6:13:1
b. Obovoid 2:1-3:2
c. Broadly obovoid 6:5
d. Very broadly obovoid 1:1
e. Broadly depressed obovoid 5:6
f. Depressed obovoid 2:3-1:2
E. Rhombic. With widest axis at midpoint of structure, and with straight margins; elliptic but margins straight and middle angled.
Plane L/W
a. Narrowly rhombic more than 6:1-3:1
b. Rhombic 2:1-3:2
c. Widely rhombic 6:5
d. Quadrate rhombic 1:1
e. Transversely widely rhombic 5:6
f. Transversely rhombic 2:31:2
g. Narrowly transversely rhombic 1:2-1:6 or more

Solid L/D
a. Narrowly rhomboid more than 3:1
b. Rhomboid 2:1-3:2
c. Broadly rhomboid 6:5
d. Quadrate rhomboid 1:1
e. Transversely broadly rhomboid 5:6
f. Transversely rhomboid 2:3-1:2
g. Narrowly transversely rhomboid 1:3-1:6 or more
F. Trullate. With widest axis below middle and with straight margins; ovate but margins straight and angled below middle, trowel-shaped.
Plane L/W
a. Narrowly trullate more than 6:1-3:1
b. Trullate 2:1-3:2
c. Widely trullate 6:5
d. Very widely trullate 1:1
e. Widely depressed trullate 5:6
f. Transversely depressed trullate 2:3-1:2

Solid L/D
a. Narrowly trulloid more than 6:1-3:1
b. Trulloid 2:1-3:2
c. Broadly trulloid 6:5
d. Very broadly trulloid l:l
e. Broadly depressed trulloid 5:6
f. Transversely depressed trulloid 2:3-1:2
G. Obtrullate. Inversely trullate.
Plane L/W
a. Narrowly obtrullate more than 6:1-3:1
b. Obtrullate 3:2-2:1
c. Widely obtrullate 6:5
d. Very widely obtrullate 1:1
e. Widely depressed obtrullate 5:6
f. Transversely depressed obtrullate 2:3-1:2

Solid L/D
a. Narrowly obtrulloid more than 6:1-3:1
b. Obtrulloid 3:2-2:1
c. Broadly obtrulloid 6:5
d. Very broadly obtrulloid 1:1
e. Broadly depressed obtrulloid 5:6
f. Transversely depressed obtrulloid 2:3-1:2
H. Triangular. With three sides and three angles.
Plane L/W
a. Linear-triangular more than 12:1
b. Narrowly triangular 6:1-3:1
c. Triangular 2:1-3:2
d. Widely deltate 6:5
e. Deltate l:l
f. Shallowly deltate 5:6
g. Shallowly triangular 2:3-1:2
h. Very shallowly triangular 1:3-1:6 or more

Solid L/D
a. Subulate more than 12:1
b. Narrowly pyramidal 6:1-3:1
c. Triangular 2:1-3:2
d. Broadly deltoid 6:5
e. Deltoid l:l
f. Shallowly deltoid 5:6
g. Shallowly pyramidal 2:3-1:2
h. Very shallowly pyramidal 1:3-1:6 or more
I. Obtriangular. Inversely triangular.
Plane L/W
a. Linear-obtriangular or narrowly cuneate more than 12:1
b. Cuneate 6:1-3:1
c. Obtriangular 2:1-3:2 or widely cuneate
d. Widely obdeltate 6:5
e. Obdeltate 1:1
f. Shallowly obdeltate 5:6
g. Shallowly obtriangular 2:3-1:2
h. Very shallowly obtriangular 1:3-1:6 or more

Solid L/D
a. Linear-obpyramidal or narrowly cuneiform more than 12:1
b. Cuneiform 6:1-3:1
c. Obpyramidal or broadly cuneiform 2:1-3:2
d. Broadly obdeltoid 6:5
e. Obdeltoid 1:1
f. Shallowly obdeltoid 5:6
g. Shallowly obpyramidal 2:3-1:2
h. Very shallowly obpyramidal 1:3-1:6 or more

2. Special Plane Figures--Outline

a. Acicular. Needlelike, round or grooved in cross section.
b. Auriculiform. Usually obovate with two small rounded, basal lobes.
c. Cordiform. Heart-shaped.
d. Dimidiate. Inequilateral with one-half wholly or nearly wanting.
e. Falcate. Scimitar-shaped.
f. Filiform. Threadlike, usually flexuous .
g. Hastiform. Triangular with two flaring basal lobes.
h. Lunate. Crescent-shaped, with acute ends.
i. Lyrate. Lyre-shaped; pinnatifid with large terminal lobe and smaller lower lobes.
j. Obcordiform. Inversely cordiform.
k. Panduriform. Fiddle-shaped; obovate with sinus or indentation on each side near base and with two small basal lobes.
1. Peltiform. Rounded with petiole attached to center of blade or apparently to laminar tissue.
m. Rectangular. Box-shaped, longer than wide.
n. Reniform. Kidney-shaped, with shallow sinus and widely rounded margins.
o. Runcinate. Oblanceolate with lacerate to parted margins.
p. Sagittiform. Triangular-ovate with two straight or slightly incurved basal lobes.
q. Spathulate or Spatulate. Oblong or obovate apically with a long attenuate base.

3. Special Solid Figures (Figure 6-14-1)
(See calyx, corolla, and perianth types for special 3-dimensional shapes, Sect. A, VIII)

a. Acerose. Needle-shaped; sharp.
b. Annular. Ring-like.
c. Arcuate. Bent like the arc of a circle.
d. Botuliform. Sausage-shaped.
e. Capillate. Hair-shaped.
f. Capitate. Head-like.
g. Clavate. Club-shaped.
h. Cochleate. Snail-shaped.
i. Compressed or Complanate. Flattened.
j. Conical. Having figure of true cone.
k. Coroniform. Crown-shaped.
1. Cotyliform. Cup-shaped.
m. Crateriform. Shallow cup-shaped as the involucre of some species of Quercus.
n. Cruciform or Cruciate. Cross-shaped.
o. Cylindric. Long-tubular.
p. Cymbiform. Boat-shaped.
q. Discoid. Orbicular with convex faces.
r. Dolabriform. Axe-shaped.
s. Excentric. One-sided; off-center.
t. Falcate or Seculate. Sickle-shaped.
u. Fistulose. Hollow, as without pith.
v. Flabelliform. Fan-shaped.
w. Fusiform. Spindle-shaped; broadest in middle and tapering to each end.
x. Half-terete. Flat on one side, terete on other; semicircular in cross section.
y. Hippocrepiform. Horseshoe-shaped.
z. Lenticular. Biconvex, usually elongate and flattish.
aa. Lingulate. Tongue-shaped, plano-convex in cross section.
bb. Meniscoidal. Thin and concaveconvex.
cc. Napiform. Turnip-shaped.
dd. Navicular. Boat-shaped.
ee. Nodiform or Nodulose. Knotty or knobby, as the roots of most of the Fabaceae.
ff. Obconic. Inversely conical.
gg. Patelliform. Knee-shaped; disk-shaped.
hh. Pisiform. Pea-shaped.
ii. Pyriform. Pear-shaped.
jj. Rectangular. Boxlike, longer than wide.
kk. Spiral. Twisted like a corkscrew.
11. Stellate. Star-shaped.
mm. Strombiform. Elongate snail-shaped.
nn. Terete. Cylindrical.
oo. Torose. Cylindrical with contractions at intervals.
pp. Turbinate. Top-shaped; obconic.
qq. Turgid. Tumid or swollen.
rr. Umbilicate. Depressed in the center.
ss. Umbonate. Round with a projection in center.
tt. Umbraculiform. Umbrella-shaped.
uu. Vermiform. Worm-shaped.

B. Apices and Bases (Figure 6-15-1) (Figure 6-15-2)
(Leaves, petals, sepals, scales, bracts or other flattened structures)

1. Apices and Bases with Sinuses.

a. Retuse. Lobe rounded; sinus depth to 1/16 distance to midpoint of blade; margins convex.
b. Emarginate. Lobe rounded; sinus depth 1/16-1/8 distance to midpoint of blade; margins straight or convex.
c. Cordate (Apex obcordate). Lobe rounded; sinus depth 1/8-1/4 distance to midpoint of blade; margins convex and/or straight.
d. Cleft. Lobe rounded; sinus depth 1/4-1/2 distance to midpoint of blade; margins convex and/or straight.
e. Reniform. Lobe rounded; sinus depth variable; outer margin convex or straight, inner concave.
f. Auriculate. Lobe rounded; sinus depth variable; outer margin concave, inner convex or straight.
g. Lobate. Lobe rounded; sinus depth variable; outer and inner margins concave.
h. Sagittate. Lobe pointed and oriented downward or inward in relation to petiole or midrib; sinus depth variable; margins variable.
i. Hastate. Lobe pointed and oriented outward or divergent in relation to petiole or midrib; sinus depth variable; margins variable.

2. Apices and Bases without Sinuses.

a. Truncate. Cut straight across; ending abruptly almost at right angles to midrib or midvein.
b. Rounded. Margins and apex forming a smooth arc.
c. Obtuse. Margins straight to convex, forming a terminal angle more than 90 .
d. Acute (Base cuneate). Margins straight to convex forming a terminal angle 45 -90 .
e. Acuminate (Base narrowly cuneate). Margins straight to convex forming a terminal angle of less than 45 .
f. Caudate (Base attenuate). Acuminate with concave margins.
g. Hastate. Margins variable; lobe pointed; oriented outward or divergently in relation to petiole or midrib.
h. Cuspidate. Acute but coriaceous and stiff.
i. Spinose or Pungent. Acuminate but coriaceous and stiff.

3. Apices with Midrib, Midvein or Vein Extension.

a. Apiculate. More than 3:1 l/w, usually slightly curled and flexuous.
b. Aristate. More than 3:1 l/w, usually prolonged, straight and stiff.
c. Cirrhous. More than 10:1 l/w, coiled and flexuous.
d. Mucronate. Less than 3:1 l/w, straight and stiff.
e. Mucronulate. 1:1 l/w or broader than long; straight.
f. Muticous. Without a vein extension, awn or hair.
g. Piliferous. More than 20:1 l/w, hair-like, flexuous.

4. Specialized Bases and Leaf Attachments.

a. Amplexicaul. Completely clasping the stem.
b. Clasping. Partly surrounding the .stem.
c. Connate or Connate-perfoliate. Having bases of opposite leaves fused around the stem.
d. Decurrent. Extending along stem downward from leaf base.
e. Ligulate. Having a tonguelike outgrowth at base of blade or top of sheath.
f. Oblique. Having an asymmetrical base.
g. Ocreate. Having a stipular tube surrounding stem above insertion of petiole or blade.
h. Ocreolate. Diminutive of ocreate; usually applied to bract bases.
i. Peltate. Usually having petiole attached near the center on the underside of blade.
j. Perfoliate. Having base completely surrounding stem.
k. Petiolate. With a petiole.
1. Sessile. Without a petiole.
m. Sheathing. Having tubular structure enclosing stem below apparent insertion of blade or petiole.
n. Surcurrent. Extending along stem upward from leaf base.

C. Margins (Figure 6-16-1)
(Leaves, petals, sepals, bracts, scales or other flattened structure)

Note: For precison in margin description the type (as described below), the symmetry of the individual tooth, the margins of the individual tooth, the apex of the individual tooth, the type of sinus (rounded or angled), the number of teeth per unit of margin measurement, the spacing (regular or irregular) of the teeth, the nature of teeth (simple or compound in two or more size groups) should be indicated or described.

1. Margin Types

a. Aculeate. Prickly.
b. Bicrenate or Doubly-crenate. With smaller rounded teeth on larger rounded teeth.
c. Biserrate or Doubly-serrate. With sharply cut teeth on the margins of larger sharply cut teeth.
d. Ciliate. With trichomes protruding from margins.
e. Cleft. Indentations or incisions cut 1/4-1/2 distance to midrib or midvein.
f. Crenate. Shallowly ascending round-toothed, or teeth obtuse; teeth cut less than 1/8 way to midrib or midvein.
g. Crenulate. Diminutive of crenate, teeth cut to 1/16 distance to midrib or midvein.
h. Crispate. Curled; margins divided and twisted in more than one plane.
i. Dentate. Margins with rounded or sharp, coarse teeth that point outwards at right angles to midrib or midvein, cut 1/16 to 1/8 distance to midrib or midvein.
j. Denticulate. Diminutive of dentate, cut to 1/16 distance to midrib or midvein.
k. Divided. Indentations or incisions cut 3/4-almost completely to midrib or midvein.
1. Entire. Without indentations or incisions on maigins; smooth.
m. Erose. Irregularly, shallowly toothed and/or lobed margins; appearing gnawed.
n. Filamentose or Filiferous. With coarse marginal fibers or threads.
o. Fimbriate. Margins fringed.
p. Fimbriolate. Minutely fimbriate.
q. Incised. Margins sharply and deeply cut, usually jaggedly.
r. Involute. Margins rolled inward.
s. Lacerate. Margins irregularly cut, appearing torn.
t. Laciniate. Margins cut into ribbon-like segments.
u. Lobed. Large, round-toothed, cut 1/8-1/4 distance to midvein.
v. Palmatifid. Cut palmately.
w. Parted. Indentations or incisions cut 1/2-3/4 distance to midrib.
x. Pinnatifid. Cut pinnately.
y. Repand. Sinuate with indentions less than 1/16 distance to midrib or midvein.
z. Retrorsely Crenate. Rounded teeth directed toward base.
aa. Retrorsely Serrate. Sharp or pointed teeth directed toward base.
bb. Revolute. Margins rolled under.
cc. Serrate. Saw-toothed; teeth sharp and ascending, but cut 1/16-1/8 distance to midrib or midvein.
dd. Serrulate. Diminutive of serrate, but cut to 1/16 distance to midrib or midvein.
ee. Sinuate. Margins shallowly and smoothly indented, wavy in a horizontal plane, without distinctive teeth or lobes, indented 1/16-1/8 distance to midrib or midvein.
ff. Undulate. Margins shallowly and smoothly indented, wavy in a vertical plane.