Section B. General Characters and Character States:
IV. Surface-Venation-Texture

[A. Configuration of Surface] [B. Venation] [C. Surface] [D. Vestiture or Indument] [E. Texture]

A. Configuration of Surface (Classification based on surface pattern usually resulting from internal structural form, exclusive of venation)

Aciculate. Finely marked as with pin pricks, fine lines usually randomly arranged.
Alate. Winged.
Alveolate. Honey-combed.
Areolate. Divided into many angular or squarish spaces.
Bullate. Puckered or blistered.
Canaliculate. Longitudinally grooved, usually in relation to petioles or midribs.
Cancellate or Clathrate. Latticed.
Corrugate. Ridged.
Costate. Coarsely ribbed.
Fenestrate. With windowlike holes through the leaves or other structures.
Flexuous. Coarsely undulate with folds at right angles to long axis.
Foveolate. Pitted.
Plicate or Plaited. Fluted, longi tudinally folded.
Punctate. Covered with minute impressions or depressions.
Pustulate. With scattered blisterlike swellings.
Reticulate. Netted.
Ribbed. With longitudinal nerves.
Ringed. With old bud scale scar rings.
Rugose. Covered with coarse reticulate lines.
Ruminate. Coarsely wrinkled, appearing as chewed.
Scarred. With old leaf base, stipular and/or branch scar regions.
Smooth or Plane. Without configuration.
Striate. With longitudinal lines.
Sulcate. With longitudinal grooves.
Tortuous. Having the surface variously twisted.

B. Venation (Classification based on vein pattern. Based on Hickey [1973])

1. General

Acrodromous. With two or more primary or strongly developed secondary veins diverging at or above the base of the blade and running in convergent arches toward the apex over some or all of the blade length, the arches not basally curved.
Actinodromous. With three or more primary veins diverging radially from a single point at or above the base of the blade and running toward the margin, reaching it or not.
Brochidodromous. With a single primary vein, the secondary veins not terminating at the margin but joined together in a series of prominent upward arches or marginal loops on each side of the primary vein.
Campylodromous. With several primary veins or their branches diverging at or close to a single point and running in strongly developed, basally recurved arches which converge toward the apex, reaching it or not.
Cladodromous. With a single primary vein, the secondary veins not terminating at the margin and freely ramified toward it.
Craspedodromous, Mixed. With a single primary vein, some of the secondary veins terminating at the margin and an approximately equal number otherwise.
Craspedodromous, Simple. With a single primary vein, all of the secondary veins and their branches terminating at the margin.
Eucamptodromous. With a single primary vein, the secondary veins curved upward and gradually iminishing distally within the margin and interconnected by a series of cross-veins without forming conspicuous marginal loops.
Hyphodromous. With a single primary vein and all other venation absent, rudimentaryj or concealed within a coriaceous or fleshy blade.
Palinactinodromous. Actinodromous, the primary veins with one or more subsidiary radiations above the primary one.
Parallelodromous. With two or more primary veins originating beside one another at the blade base and running more or less parallel to the apex where they converge.
Reticulodromous. With a single primary vein, the secondary veins not terminating at the margin and losing their identities near the margin by repeated branching, yielding a dense reticulum.
Semicraspedodromous. With a single primary vein, the secondary veins branching just within the margin, one branch from each terminating at the margin and the other forming a marginal loop and joining the superadjacent secondary vein.

2. Special (Figure 6-16-3)
(Traditional classification)

Dichotomous. With veins branching or forking in pairs equally.
Netted or Reticulate. With veins forming a network.
Parallel. With veins extending from base to apex, essentially parallel.
Penni-parallel. With veins extending from midrib to margins, essentially parallel.

C. Surface (Figure 6-17-2)
(Classification based on features derived from epidermal outgrowths or excrescences, exclusive of trichomes)

Asperous. Having a rough surface.
Bristly. Beset with bristles.
Echinate. Covered with spines.
Farinaceous. Mealy.
Glabrate or Glabrescent. Becoming glabrous.
Glabrous. Smooth; devoid of trichomes.
Glandular. Covered with minute, blackish to translucent glands.
Glaucescent. Sparingly or slightly glaucous.
Glaucous. Covered with a bloom or smooth, waxy coating.
Glutinous. Having a shiny, sticky surface.
Granular. Finely mealy, covered with small granules.
Greasy or Unctuous. Slick, oily, slippery to touch.
Mucilaginous. Gummy or gelatinous.
Muricate. Covered with short, hard protuberances.
Muriculate. Minutely muricate.
Opaque. With a dull surface.
Prickly. With prickles.
Pruinose, Frosted, or Sebiferous. With a heavy wax coat.
Pubescent. Covered with dense or scattered trichomes.
Pulverulent. Covered with fine, powdery wax granules.
Ramentaceous. Having many thin scales, as on the epidermis of some ferns.
Resinous. Having a yellowish, sticky, exudate.
Roridulate or Dewy. Covered with waxy platelets, appearing dewy.
Scaberulent. Approaching scabrous.
Scabridulous. Minutely scabrous.
Scabrous. Having a harsh surface.
Shining, Nitid, or Laevigate. Lustrous, polished.
Spiculate. With crystals in or on the surface.
Squamose. Having coarse scales.
Subglabrate. Almost glabrous.
Tuberculate or Verrucose. With a warty surface.
Viscid. Sticky or glutinous.

D. Vestiture or Indument (Figure 6-17-3)
(Classification based on trichome cover types, or type of hairy cover.)

Aculeate. Prickly.
Arachnoid. Cobwebby.
Barbed. With short, rigid reflexed bristles or processes.
Barbellate. Minutely barbed.
Bearded or Barbate. With long trichomes usually in a tuft, line or zone.
Bristly. Covered with stiff, strong trichomes.
Canescent or Incanous. Covered with dense, fine grayish-white trichomes.
Ciliate. With conspicuous marginal trichomes.
Ciliolate. With tiny or small marginal trichomes.
Comose. With a tuft of trichomes, usually apical.
Downy. Covered with short, weak, soft trichomes.
Floccose. Covered with dense, appressed trichomes in patches or tufts.
Glabrate. Without trichomes.
Glandular. Covered with secretory or excretory trichomes.
Glochidiate. With barbed trichomes, glochids, usually in tufts.
Hirsute. Covered with long, rather stiff trichomes.
Hirsutullous or Hirtellous. Minutely hirsute.
Hispid. Covered with very long, stiff trichomes.
Hispidulous. Approaching hispid, minutely hispid.
Inermous. Unarmed. Without prickles or spines.
Lanate. Covered with long, intertwined trichomes, cottony.
Lanuginose. Cottony, similar to lanate but trichomes shorter.
Lepidote or Squamulose. Covered with minute scales.
Paleaceous. With small membranous scales, chaffy.
Pannose or Felted. With matted, feltlike layer of trichomes.
Papillose. Covered with minute tubercles.
Pilose. With soft, shaggy trichomes.
Puberulent. Minutely pubescent.
Pubescent. Usually with straight, slender trichomes.
Scurfy or Lentiginous. With exfoliating scaly incrustations.
Sericeous. With long, silky trichomes, usually appressed.
Setose, Setaceous. Having setae or bristlelike trichomes.
Strigillose. Diminutive of strigose.
Strigose. Covered with sharp, coarse, bent trichomes usually with a bulbous base.
Tomentose. Covered with dense, interwoven trichomes.
Urent or Stinging. With erect, usually long trichomes that produce irritation when touched.
Velutinous. Covered with dense, straight, long and soft trichomes; pile-like.
Villosulous. Minutely villous.
Villous. Covered with long, soft, crooked trichomes.

E. Texture
(Classification based on physical condition or consistency of leaves, scales, petals, fruits and other parts)

Baccate. Juicy and very succulent.
Carnose or Sarcous. Fleshy.
Cartilaginous. Hard and tough but flexible.
Ceraceous. Waxy.
Chartaceous. Papery, opaque and thin.
Coriaceous. Thick and leathery.
Corneous. Horny.
Crustaceous. Hard, thin, and brittle.
Diaphanous. Translucent.
Fibrous. Having loose, woody fibers.
Flaccid. Lax and weak.
Gelatinous. Jellylike; soft and quivery.
Herbaceous. Soft and succulent.
Hyaline. Thin and translucent or transparent.
Incrassate. Thickened.
Indurate. Hardened.
Ligneous. Woody.
Membranous. Thin and semi-translucent; membrane-like.
Osseous. Bony.
Pannose. With a felty texture.
Pellucid. Clear, transparent.
Scarious. Thin and dry, appearing shriveled.
Sclerous. Hard.
Spongy. Cellular; sponge-like.
Suberous. Corky.
Suffrutescent. Woody basally, herbaceous apically.
Woody. Hard and lignified.