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Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1804- 1864

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[1858] [1859] [1860] [1861] [1862] [1863] [1864]<-Hawthorne dies
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[1900] [1903] [1926] [1934]

April 2...Vienna: Beethoven performs 1st Piano Concerto and 1st Symphony
April 14..Washington, D.C.: Congress establishes library
Paris: first coffee percolator invented
March 20...Alessandro Volta publishes description of first battery
May 25...Boston, Mass.: Ralph Waldo Emerson born
Feb. 12.....Prussia: the great philosopher Kant dies
May 14...St. Louis: Jefferson sends Lewis and Clark to explore Louisiana Purchase to the Pacific
May 18...Paris: Napoleon becomes Emperor
July 4.... Salem, Mass., 27 Union St.: Nathaniel Hathorne, Jr., born to Nathaniel Hathorne and Elizabeth Clarke Manning Hathorne
U.S.: Alexander Hamilton killed by Aaron Burr in duel
U.S. ends Barbary War with Tripoli
England, Wordsworth publishes The Prelude
Oct. 21... Battle of Trafalgar, Lord Nelson wins but dies
Hartford, Conn.: Noah Webster publishes dictionary
Feb. 27...Portland, Me.: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow born
U.S. stops exports with Embargo Act as ships seized by England and France in Napoleonic Wars
New York: Fulton launches steamboat Clermont
Feb.?...Dutch Guiana: Nathaniel Hathorne's father, a ship captain, dies of yellow fever
U.S.: African slave trade ended by act of Congress
Salem, Mass.: 12 Herbert St.: Nathaniel Hathorne, his mother, and sisters move in with the Mannings
Feb. 12...Kentucky: Abraham Lincoln born
Mar. 31...Russia: Nikolai Gogol born
England: Walter Scott publishes The Lady of the Lake
St. Louis: Largest earthquake in U.S. history rocks Mississippi and Ohio
Concord, Mass.: William Emerson dies
November...England: Luddite uprisings begin
Apr. 19...Concord, Mass.: militia assembles to take part in war with British
June 18...War of 1812 between U.S. and Britain officially begins
Salem, Mass.: Nathaniel Hathorne is taught at home by Joseph Worcester, following an injury to his foot that requires crutches for the next two years.
England, Jane Austen publishes Pride and Prejudice
Washington, D.C.: British burn capitol
Waltham, Mass.: first textile mill built
June 18...Belgium: Napoleon meets his Waterloo
June 22...Paris: Napoleon abdicates again, Louis XVIII is restored to throne
Raymond, Me.: Nathaniel Hathorne lives near Sebago Lake
Albany, N.Y.: work begins on Erie Canal
U.S.: Great Lakes demilitarized by Rush-Bagot Treaty
July 12...Concord, Mass.: Henry David Thoreau born
July 18...England: Jane Austen dies
Dec. 17...Haverhill, Mass.: John Greenleaf Whittier born
Dec. 31...Portsmouth, N.H.: James T. Fields born
Portland, Me.: Nathaniel Hathorne attends school
U.S.: Cumberland Road opens
England: Mary Shelley publishes Frankenstein
Salem, Mass.: Nathaniel Hathorne returns to prepare for college, attends Samuel Archer's school
Apr. 11...England: Coleridge meets Keats
June 20...U.S.: First steamship crossing of Atlantic by Savannah
U.S.: Economic Panic causes depression
Aug. 1...New York: Herman Melville born
England: the future Queen Victoria born
England: Percy Shelley publishes The Cenci
Salem, Mass.: Nathaniel Hathorne tutored by Benj. Oliver
U.S.: Missouri Compromise--Missouri admitted to union as slave state, Maine free
U.S.: Washington Irving publishes "Rip van Winkle"
England: Percy Bysse Shelley writes "Prometheus Unbound"
Feb. 23...Rome: Keats dies
May 5...St. Helena: Napoleon dies
Brunswick, Me.: Nathaniel Hathorne studies at Bowdoin College with Longfellow, Pierce
Cambridge, Mass.: Ralph Waldo Emerson graduates from Harvard
Italy: Shelley dies
Joseph Nicéphore Niepce takes first permanent photograph
July 2...South Carolina: Vesey's Rebellion of slaves fails
Africa: Liberia founded as refuge for freed American slaves
Jean-Francois Champollion deciphers part of Rosetta stone
Dec. 2...U.S.: James Monroe pronounces Monroe Doctrine to keep European powers from Americas
U.S.: John Howard Payne publishes the song, "Home, Sweet Home"
Germany: Beethoven composes Ninth Symphony
New York: Cooper publishes The Pioneers
England: Lord Byron publishes Don Juan
Apr. 19..Byron dies
Dec. 1...U.S.: Presidential election deadlocks, goes to House; John Quincy Adams prevails
Sequoya defines Cherokee alphabet
Brunswick, Me.: Nathaniel Hathorne graduates, Bowdoin College
Salem, Mass.: Nathaniel Hathorne lives with mother and sisters, writes
Boston: Caleb Snow publishes A History of Boston
Boston: John Winthrop's Journal turns up, is published
Oct. 26...Albany, N.Y.: Erie Canal opens
England: first railway opens
France: Pierre-Fidele Bretonneau performs first successful tracheotomy
Russia: Nicholas I becomes Czar
July 4....U.S.: Thomas Jefferson and John Adams die
U.S.: James Fenimore Cooper publishes The Last of the Mohicans
England: Thomas Malthus publishes expanded Essay on Population
Boston, Mass.: Elizabeth Palmer Peabody volunteers as Rev. William Ellery Channing's secretary for the next few years
Mar. 26...Germany: Beethoven dies
Germany: Heinrich Heine publishes book of lieder
U.S.: Poe publishes Poems, Tamerlane
Salem: Joseph B. Felt publishes The Annals of Salem
U.S., England: Audubon publishes first The Birds of North America
Boston, Mass.: Nathaniel Hathorne anonymously publishes Fanshawe, a romantic novel of college life (later he tried to recover all copies; it was republished after his death)
Conn.: Noah Webster publishes An American Dictionary of the English Language
Paris: Rossini's William Tell opens
New York: William Cullen Bryant becomes editor of Evening Post
Mexico: After Spanish troops are repelled by Santa Anna, slavery is abolished
Carbondale, Pa.: first steam locomotive begins service
Boston: "Siamese twins" arrive; later, they are displayed in Barnum's circus
October....Nathaniel Hathorne publishes "Sights from a Steeple" in The Token
November....Salem, Mass.: Nathaniel Hathorne publishes "The Hollow of the Three Hills" in The Salem Gazette
Nathaniel Hathorne adds "w" to spelling of last name after this date
U.S.: Sarah Josepha Hale writes "Mary Had a Little Lamb"
England: Charles Lyell publishes Principles of Geology
U.S.: W. E. Channing publishes "The Importance and Means of a National Literature"
France: Stendahl publishes The Red and the Black
Germany, Europe: rebellions put down, Louis-Phillipe crowned in France
Canterbury, N.H.: Nathaniel Hawthorne visits Shaker community
U.S.: Samuel Francis Smith writes "America"
England: Charles Darwin begins trip around world in Beagle
Nov. 11...Virginia: Nat Turner's Rebellion of slaves fails
Mar. 22...Germany: Goethe dies; second part of Faust is published
Sept. 21...Scott dies
September....Salem, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne takes a trip to New Hampshire, the Erie Canal, and Niagara Falls
November....Washington, D.C.: Andrew Jackson, Democrat, elected President
New York: horse-drawn rail cars start operation
Nov. 29..Louisa May Alcott born
Aug. 5...England: Emerson visits Coleridge
Aug. 23...London: Slave-owning illegal in realm after one year
U.S.: Oberlin College becomes first coeducational college
Boston: Massachusetts ends tax support for churches
London: Charles Babbage invents first calculating machine
Denmark: Han Christian Anderson publishes his first fairy tales
Salem, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne finishes The Story Teller, a group of stories in a frame narrative (although rejected and manuscript lost, some of the stories were later published in magazines and collections)
U.S.: Davy Crockett publishes autobiography of frontier life
Paris: Braille invented
July 25...England: Coleridge dies
Salem, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne publishes "Young Goodman Brown" in New-England Magazine
U.S.: Samuel Morse invents telegraph
Halley's Comet reappears
Paris: Louis Daguerre invents daguerrotype photography
Concord, Mass.: Ralph Waldo Emerson remarries and moves to town
Concord, N.H.: John Greenleaf Whittier, a Massachusetts legislator and abolitionist, is attacked by mob
Nov. 30...Florida, Mo.: Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain) born
Paris: Alexis de Tocqueville publishes first volume of Democracy in America
Boston, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne edits and mostly writes American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge
Mar. 6....San Antonio: Mexican army captures Alamo in Texas Republic; Davy Crockett killed
Boston: Ralph Waldo Emerson publishes his first book, Nature, written at the Old Manse in Concord
Cambridge, Mass.: Longfellow becomes professor of modern languages at Harvard
November....Washington, D.C.: Martin Van Buren, Democrat, elected President
U.S.: Samuel Colt invents revolver
Paris: Arch of Triumph completed
U.S.: Alonzo Phillips patents phosphorous match
Jan. 7...J. Pierpont Morgan born
Boston: Nathaniel Hawthorne edits Peter Parley's Universal History
March 6..Nathaniel Hawthorne publishes Twice-Told Tales, a collection of stories previously published in magazines
Salem, Mass.: Elizabeth Palmer Peabody visits Hawthorne's sister, who she believes wrote Twice-Told Tales
Salem, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne meets Sophia Peabody
U.S.: Economic Panic begins long depression; mills and banks close, including, the next year, Hawthorne's publisher
Cambridge, Mass.: Thoreau graduates from Harvard
Japan: Tokugawa shogun Ienari resigns
New York: Samuel Morse patents and demonstrates telegraphy with Morse code, which was actually invented by his assistant, Alfred Lewis Vail
Massachusetts: Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, first college for women, opens
England: Queen Victoria begins long reign
Nathaniel Hawthorne writes for Democratic Review
Washington, D.C.: Hawthorne's friend, Jonathan Cilley, is killed in a duel
U.S.: First regular steamship service across Atlantic
Jan. 4...Tom Thumb born; will star in P.T. Barnum's circus
England: Dickens publishes Oliver Twist
U.S.: Poe publishes Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym
Boston: Prescott publishes History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella
July 15..Cambridge, Mass.: Emerson delivers Divinity Hall Sermon
November...Boston, Mass.: Elizabeth Palmer Peabody persuades George Bancroft to offer Nathaniel Hawthorne a job
Nathaniel Hawthorne and Sophia Peabody become secretly engaged
Aug. 19...Paris: daguerreotype process made public by French government at extraordinary joint Academy and Legislature meeting
Boston, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne works as measurer in Custom House for historian George Bancroft, Collector of the Port; lives at 54 Pinckney St., 8 Somerset Place
England: Samuel Cunard founds steamship line
England: Carl August Steinheil builds first electric clock
Washington, D.C.: Congress outlaws dueling
U.S.: Charles Goodyear discovers vulcanization of rubber
Boston: Longfellow publishes Hyperion and Voices of the Night
China: Opium War with England begins
Kirkpatrick MacMillan introduces first modern bicycle with brakes and pedals, though with iron tires
U.S.: Poe publishes "The Fall of the House of Usher"
Boston, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne publishes children's books of stories, Grandfather's Chair, Famous Old People, and Liberty Tree
March..Concord, Mass.: Bronson Alcott moves family from Boston after Temple School fails; Louisa May Alcott enrolls in Thoreau's Concord Academy
July...Boston, Mass., 13 West St.: Elizabeth Palmer Peabody opens bookshop
Concord, Mass.: Margaret Fuller publishes The Dial, with Thoreau poem
November....Washington, D.C.: William Henry Harrison, a Whig, elected President; dies after one month and John Tyler takes office
May 1..England: first adhesive (penny) stamp introduced
Belgium: Antoine Joseph Sax invents saxophone
Boston: Durgin Park restaurant opens
Boston: Richard Henry Dana publishes Two Years Before the Mast
Scotland: James Nasmyth invents steam hammer
Florence: Giovanni Battista Amici introduces oil immersion microscope
England: Duchess of Bedford institutes afternoon tea ritual
France: Pierre Joseph Proudhon publishes socialist What is Property?
China: Opium War
April-Nov....Boston, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne lives at Brook Farm, a utopian community, 670 Baker St., West Roxbury; Thoreau declines invitation to join
New Bedford, Mass.: First Japanese immigrant to U.S. arrives
California: first covered wagon train arrives
Syracuse, N.Y.: first state fair opens
Concord, Mass.: Emerson publishes first volume of Essays
U.S.: Cooper publishes The Deerslayer
U.S.: Channing's Works published
New York: New York Tribune begins publication
London: a photograph first appears in a newspaper
London: Punch begins publication
Paris: arc light street lamps demonstrated
Jan 11....Concord, Mass.: John Thoreau dies in Henry's arms after Jan 1 razor cut leads to lockjaw
May...U.S.: Poe's "Masque of the Red Death" appears
July...Concord, Mass.: Thoreau's Natural History of Massachusetts draws Hawthorne's attentions
England: Darwin composes abstract of theory of evolution
July 9....Boston, Mass., 13 West St.: Nathaniel Hawthorne marries Sophia Peabody
July 9....Concord, Mass.: Nathaniel and Sophia Hawthorne move into the Old Manse, rented from Emerson, with garden dug by Thoreau
Tahiti: Herman Melville deserts ship, later signs onto Nantucket whaler
U.S. and Britain settle boundary disputes
Massachusetts child labor law limits under-12 to 10 hours a day
Concord, Mass.: Bronson Alcott travels to England
Concord, Mass.: Emerson publishes Essays (Second Series)
Boston: Longfellow publishes Ballads
U.S.: Mormons begin practicing polygamy
England: William Wordsworth appointed poet laureate
U.S.: John Greenleaf Whittier publishes Lays of My Home
April 15...Cambridge, Mass.: Henry James born
May 1..Boston, Mass., 13 West Street: Mary Peabody marries Henry Mann
June 1..Concord, Mass.: Bronson Alcott moves family to Fruitlands utopian community in Harvard, Mass.
July 13....Boston, Mass.: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow marries Frances Appleton at 39 Beacon St.
November...Concord, Mass.: Thoreau publishes "Paradise (to be) Regained," criticizing technological utopianism
Denmark: Soren Kierkegaard publishes Either-Or
U.S.: Poe publishes "The Black Cat"
New Britain, Conn.: Frederick Stanley founds bolt factory, first steam power in area
Paris: first "millionaire", tobacco baron Pierre Lorillard, dies
Boston: Prescott publishes History of the Conquest of Mexico
London: John Stuart Mill publishes A System of Logic
London: Charles Dickens publishes A Christmas Carol
California: John Fremont establishes Oregon Trail
London: John Bennett Lawes produces superphosphate, first artificial fertilizer
Charles Macintosh and Thomas Hancock produce first waterproof clothes
Germany: Samuel Schwabe describes sunspot cycle
New York: Jerome Increase Case introduces threshing machine
England: James Joule develops mechanical theory of heat
London: The Economist begins publication
January..Harvard, Mass.: Alcotts leave Fruitlands
Concord, Mass.: Una Hawthorne born to Nathaniel and Sophia Hawthorne
April 30...Thoreau accidentally sets fire in Concord woods
November....Washington, D.C.: James Polk, Democrat, elected President
May 24...Washington, D.C.-Baltimore: Samuel Morse demonstrates first telegraph line
Hartford, Conn.: Horace Wells first uses nitrous oxide as dental anesthetic
Paris: Karl Marx meets Friedrich Engels
First book published to include photographic illustrations, Pencil of Nature
Germany: Mendelssohn composes Violin Concerto
U.S.: Poe publishes "The Purloined Letter"
Iceland: Last great auk killed
Concord, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne edits Journal of an African Cruiser for Horatio Bridge, USN.
Jan....New York: Rainbow, first clipper ship, launched
Jan. 29...U.S.: Poe publishes "The Raven"
Mar. 3...U.S.: Florida becomes 27th state
Mar. 4...Washington, D.C.: Polk inaugurated
May...Pittsburgh: first wire cable aqueduct suspension bridge opens
June 8...Nashville, Tenn.: former President Andrew Jackson dies
July 4....Concord, Mass.: Henry David Thoreau moves into Walden Pond home
Aug. 28...Washington, D.C.: Scientific American starts publication
October 2....Concord, Mass.: Hawthornes leave Old Manse
Salem, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne moves family into mother's home
Ireland: Potato famine begins; immigrants come to U.S.
Paris: Alexandre Dumas publishes The Count of Monte Cristo
West Boylston, Mass.: Erastus Bigelow opens power loom factory for carpets
Poland Springs, Me.: water is first bottled here
England: Charles Darwin publishes Voyage of the Beagle
Jan. 13...Texas: U.S. begins war with Mexico
U.S.: Nancy Johnson invents first hand-cranked ice cream maker
March....New York: Herman Melville publishes Typee
Apr. 13...U.S.: Pennsylvania Railroad officially chartered
Salem, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne becomes Surveyor of Port in Custom House
June 5....New York: Nathaniel Hawthorne's Mosses from an Old Manse published by Wiley and Putnam
June 15...U.S.: Oregon Treaty establishes 49th parallel as boundary with Canada
June 19...Hoboken, N.J.: first official baseball game
June 22...Boston, Mass.: Julian Hawthorne born to Nathaniel and Sophia
July...Concord, Mass.: Thoreau spends night in jail in protest of Mexican War tax
Aug. 10....Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution opens (founded by 1829 bequest from James Smithson, who never came to America)
Aug 31...Maine: Thoreau visits Mount Kathahdin in Maine
Sept. 10...Elias Howe patents first sewing machine
Sept. 23...Germany: John Galle discovers Neptune
Oct. 16...Boston: Ether demonstrated as anesthetic for surgery
Russia: Dostoyevsky's Poor Folk published
England: Corn Laws repealed
Salem, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne moves family to Mall Street, along with mother and sisters
Feb. 11...Thomas Alva Edison is born
Mar. 9...Vera Cruz, Mexico: first amphibious landing by U.S. Army
U.S. captures Mexico City; Gen. Winfield Scott and Gen. Franklin Pierce command troops
July 24...Salt Lake City, Utah: Mormons found city
Sept. 6....Concord, Mass.: Henry David Thoreau leaves Walden
Oct. 1...Nantucket, Mass.: Maria Mitchell discovers comet
Cambridge, Mass.: Longfellow publishes Evangeline, reviewed by Hawthorne
Chicago: McCormick Harvesting Machinery Co. opens
England: Brontes publish Wuthering Heights, Jane Eyre
Italy: Ascanio Sobrero discovers nitroglycerine
U.S.: Richard March Hoe patents rotary printing press
U.S.: Asa Gray publishes Manual of Botany
Germany: Hermann von Helmhotz publishes law of conservation of energy
Salem, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne becomes manager of Lyceum, invites Emerson, Thoreau, Agassiz, Horace Mann, to lecture
Jan. 24...California: Sutter discovers gold; Gold Rush begins, but more so in 1849
Jan. 26...Concord, Mass.: Thoreau delivers lecture, "Civil Disobedience"
Feb. 23...Washington, D.C.: John Quincy Adams dies
China: Taiping Rebellion begins, resulting in 20 million dead
Germany: Revolution put down; many emigrate
Bangor, Me.: John Curtis perfects chewing gum
Mexico cedes territory to U.S. in Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, ending Mexican War
July 19..Seneca Falls, N.Y.: Women's Rights Convention, by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott
New York: Charles Burton creates first baby carriage
Salem, Mass.: Essex Institute founded
New York: utopian Oneida Community is formed
U.S.: Stephen Foster writes song, "Oh, Susanna!"
England: William Makepeace Thackeray publishes Vanity Fair
Europe: Marx and Engels publish Communist Manifesto
Nov. 7....Washington, D.C.: Zachary Taylor, a Whig, elected President (first on first Tuesday in November)
Boston, Mass.: Alcott family moves to Pinckney Street; Mrs. Alcott supports family as a visitor to the poor
April 12..U.S.: Walter Hunt patents first safety pin
May 14....Concord, Mass.: E. P. Peabody publishes "Resistance to Civil Government," later retitled, "Civil Disobedience"
May 30....Concord, Mass.: Thoreau publishes A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers
Roxbury, Mass.: Waltham Watch Co. founded
June 7...Salem, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne fired as Surveyor of Port
July 31...Salem, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne's mother dies
Sept. 3....South Berwick, Me.: Sarah Orne Jewett born
September....Salem, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne starts writing The Scarlet Letter
Oct. 7...Edgar Allan Poe dies
Venice: unmanned Austrian balloon drops bombs for first time from air
Brooklyn, N.Y.: Pharmaceutical firm Pfizer, Inc., formed, issues candy-coated dewormer
Paris: Joseph Monier invents reinforced concrete
March 16..Boston, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter published by Ticknor, Reed and Fields
May...Lenox, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne moves family to Tanglewood cottage
U.S.: Emerson publishes Representative Men
July 19..Fire Island, N.Y.: Margaret Fuller dies in shipwreck; Thoreau and Channing, sent by Emerson, can't find remains
June...New York: Harper's Magazine begins publication
July 9....Washington, D.C.: Zachary Taylor dies and Millard Fillmore becomes President, signs the Compromise of 1850, supported by Pierce but not by abolitionists
Aug. 5...Stockbridge, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne meets Herman Melville at a picnic
England: Charles Dickens publishes David Copperfield
England: Elizabeth Barrett Browning publishes Sonnets from the Portuguese
Aug. 28...Weimar, Germany: Wagner's Lohengrin performed (Wagner still in hiding in Switzerland after German revolution fails)
Sept. 9...U.S.: California admitted as 31st state
U.S.: Aeta Life Insurance Company issues its first policies
Buffalo, N.Y.: American Express formed
San Francisco: Levi Strauss & Co. founded
Washington, D.C.: Emmanuel Leutze finishes painting Washington Crosses the Delaware, (destroyed in Germany in World War II, but a second version is at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)
England: Francis Dalton invents the teletype
Brooklyn, N.Y.: 16 English sparrows imported to control insects

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