(A) Selected War Events,
(B) U.S. Defense and War Measures and
(C) Navy Department measures, Organization, and Policies

THE CHRONOLOGY is set down in three parallel columns under the above headings in the interests of keeping the student of the administration of the Navy Department in touch with contemporaneous events and situations that occurred in the entire field of the war effort. The chronology does hot pretend to cover completely even the most important day-by-day happenings in World War II, but it does provide a picture of sorts of the time that was needed to convert the country from a peace-loving into an efficient war-making nation.1 It provides, particularly, a picture of the lead-time necessary to go from a logistics decision in Washington to its impact on the fighting front.2

Many of the items could have been placed in either column B or column C, but, in general, the rule was followed of placing in column C the measures that originated in the Navy Department or came under the specific jurisdiction of the Navy Department, and in column B those that applied to all of the Armed Forces and to the civilian economy of the country. A few of the earlier United States naval operation are included in column A, so that they can be associated more readily as to time with the state of the industrial mobilization of the country and the expansion of the Navy, itself.


Date Selected War Events U.S. Defense and War Measures Navy Department Measures,
Organization, and Policies
Jan. 4   President urges adequate national defense in annual message to Congress.  
Jan. 10 Joint Congressional Committee on Military Affairs warned of imminent European war by Ambassadors J.P. Kennedy & Wm. C. Bullitt.   Claude A. Swanson, Sec'y of Navy
Charles Edison, Ass't Sec'y
No Ass't Sec'y for Air.
Jan. 27   President approved sale of military planes to France.  
Feb. 10 Japanese occupation of Hainan Island imperils British & French defenses of Far East possessions.   Adm. Wm. D. Leahy, Chief of Naval Operations.
Mar. 7   Congress authorizes 6,000 additional planes for Army.  
Mar. 15 German troops occupy Prague.    
Mar. 31 Great Britain & France pledge immediate assistance to Poland in event of aggression.    
Apr. 7 Italy invades Albania.    
Apr. 14   President Roosevelt assert in speech before Pan-American Union, U.S. will meet attack on any of the Americas.  
Apr. 15 Assurance asked from Hitler & Mussolini that they will not invade 31 independent nations of Europe & Asia for at least 10 years.    
Apr. 25     Act of Congress permits use of negotiated contract for base construction beyond continental United States.
Apr. 27   Brig. Gen. Geo. C. Marshall appointed Chief of Staff, U.S. Army.  
Apr. 28 Hitler rejects Roosevelt's proposal of April 15, demands Danzig and a road through the Corridor.    
May 5 Foreign Minister Joseph Beck of Poland refuses Hitler's demands.    
May 27   Secretary of State Cordell Hull recommends revision of neutrality law to eliminate arms embargo.  
June 7   Strategic Materials Act passed, authorizing $100,000,000 purchase of critical materials.  
June 30   Congress refuses to amend neutrality act.  
July 7     Secretary of Navy Swanson died; Charles Edison becomes Acting Secretary.
July 12   Army and Navy Munitions Board Clearance Committee established to coordinate foreign purchases.  
July 26   U.S. denounces trade treaty with Japan.  
July 28 British-French-Russian staff consultation starts in Moscow.    
Aug. 1     Adm. H.R. Stark, USN, becomes Chief of Naval Operations.
Aug. 4.   President authorizes appointment of War Resources Board to study ANMB Industrial Mobilization Plan.  
Aug. 23 Russian-German non-aggression pact signed in Moscow.    


Date Selected War Events U.S. Defense and War Measures Navy Department Measures,
Organization, and Policies
Aug. 24 Roosevelt appeals to Hitler & Pres. Moscicki of Poland to settle their differences in a peaceful manner.    
Sep. 1 Germany invades Poland.    
Sep. 3 Great Britain & France declare war on Germany. War Cabinet formed in London.    
Sep. 5   U.S. proclaims its neutrality; arms embargo effective against all belligerent nations including Great Britain.  
Sep. 6     American naval patrol established in Atlantic & Caribbean to observe movements of ships of belligerents.
Sep. 8 Allies announce long-range blockade of Germany. Limited national emergency declared by President. Increase ordered in enlisted strength of all U.S. armed forces  
Sep. 9   President reorganizes Executive Office of the President in order that the nation may not again be caught unaware."  
Sep. 10     Adm. W.D. Leahy, USN (Ret.) become Governor of Puerto Rico.
Sep. 21   Special session of Congress convenes to consider revision of neutrality act.  
Sep. 27 Warsaw surrenders. Germany and Russian partition Poland.    
Oct. 12 Great Britain rejects Hitler's peace proposals.    
Oct. 24   Revised Industrial Mobilization Plan published.  
Nov. 4   President signs joint resolution repealing arms embargo. President declares area around British Isles a combat zone.
Nov. 24   War Resources Board submits report, concluding its existence.  
Nov. 30 Russian forces invade Finland.    
Dec. 6   President's Liaison Committee, replaces ANMB Clearance Committee to coordinate foreign and domestic military procurement in U.S.  
Jan. 2     Charles Edison takes oath as Secretary of the Navy
Jan. 4   President recommends larger appropriation for national defense in annual budget message.  
Jan. 6     Adm. J.O. Richardson assumes command U.S. Fleet.
Jan. 18   Secretary of Agriculture suspends exchange of cotton for British rubber BECAUSE OF SHIPPING SHORTAGE.  
Feb. 2   Secretary of Treasury requests machine tool industry to give priority to orders from American aircraft engine companies.  
Apr. 2   U.S. Fleet departs for maneuvers in Hawaiian Islands area.  
APr. 4   Senate refuses funds for Guam Harbor development. Lewis Compton becomes Ass't Sec'y of Navy.


Date Selected War Events U.S. Defense and War Measures Navy Department Measures,
Organization, and Policies

Apr. 9 Germany invades Denmark and Norway    
Apr. 17   Cordell Hull declares that any forceful alteration of the status quo of the Netherlands Indies will prejudice security of entire Pacific region.  
Apr. 21 British troops land in Norway but withdraw by May 3.    
May 1   U.S. establishes a provisional consulate in Greenland.  
May 7     President orders Pacific Fleet remain in Hawaiian waters indefinitely.
May 9 British troops occupy Iceland.    
May 10 Germany invades Holland, Belgium and Luxembourg    
May 11 Chamberlain government resigns; Churchill becomes Prime Minister.    
May 11 British and French forces land in Curaçao and Aruba in West Indies.    
May 15 Netherlands Army surrenders. Germany invades France.    
May 16   President announces goal 50,000 military planes per year; asks for $1,182,000,000 National Defense funds. Plan for recommissioning 35 more reserve destroyers announced.
May 25   Office of Emergency management created in the Executive Office of the President.  
May 26 British begin large-scale evacuation of Dunkirk beaches.    
May 28 Belgian Army surrenders.    
May 29   President appoints National Defense Advisory Commission.  
June 11 Italy enters war against France &a p; Great Britain.    
June 14 German troops enter Paris.   President signs 11% Naval Expansion Act.
June 15   President appoints National defense Research Committee.  
June 16 Marshal Petain becomes Premier of France.    
June 17   ANMB establishes Priorities Committee.  
June 20     Office of Under Sec'y of Navy for duration of emergency established by Act of Congress.
Bureau of Construction and Repair and Bureau of Engineering merged to become Bureau of Ships.
June 22 France signs armistice terms with Germany    
June 24     Charles Edison resigns as Secretary of the Navy. Lewis Compton Acting Secretary.
June 25   Emergency Reserve Supply Act of 1940 authorizes RFC to stockpile strategic materials. Construction Corps, U.S. Navy abolished.


Date Selected War Events U.S. Defense and War Measures Navy Department Measures,
Organization, and Policies
June 27   President declares a "National Emergency."
Office of Coordinator of National Defense Purchases established under Donald M. Nelson.
June 28     Congress establishes President's Emergency Fund for direct financing of Army and Navy facilities and authorizes negotiated contracts for construction and repair of ship and aircraft.
June 30     Personnel: Navy--160,997; Marine Corps--28,364; Coast Guard--13,877.
July 1   Steeply graduated excess profits tax on corporations and individuals recommended to Congress by President.  
July 2 French government establishes headquarters at Vichy. Congress authorizes embargo on exports of munitions and critical materials. Office of Export Control established.  
July 10 Battle of Britain begins with first concentrated air attack. President requests authorization of $4,848,000,000 in defense funds.  
July 11     Frank Knox takes office as Sec'y of the Navy.
july 14 Russian annexes Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.    
July 19     Naval expansion Act signed, provides funds for 70% Naval increase, known as "Two-Ocean Navy" Act.
July 25   Embargo placed on export of scrap metal, petroleum and petroleum products without special license.  
Aug. 3 Japanese ambassador protests embargo on aviation gasoline without success.    
Aug. 5   ANMB issues first Priorities Directive establishing preference ratings for military supplies.  
Aug. 16   Coordinator of Commercial and Cultural Relations between the American Republics established.  
Aug. 22   Defense Plant Corporation established under RFC to acquire industrial facilities for Army and Navy. James V. Forrestal takes office as first Under Secretary of the Navy.
Aug. 23     Sec'y Knox assigns material procurement to Under Sec'y and civilian and military personnel to Ass't Sec'y.
Sep. 3     Great Britain lease bases to U.S. in exchange for 50 American destroyers.
Sep. 16   President signs Selective Training and Service Act containing provisions for commandeering plants not cooperating on defense orders.  
Oct. 5     Sec'y of the Navy places organized Naval Reserve on short notice.
Oct. 8   Tax Amortization Plan becomes law as part of Internal Revenue Act of 1940.  


Date Selected War Events U.S. Defense and War Measures Navy Department Measures,
Organization, and Policies
Oct. 16   U.S. Selective Service registers 16,400,000 men for military training.
Iron and steel scrap and high octane gasoline placed on export control list.
Oct. 28 Italy invades Greece.    
Nov. 5   Franklin D. Roosevelt reelected President for third term.  
Nov. 13     Sec'y Know issues directive outlining procedure for applying tax amortization statute.
Nov. 20     Dillon-Belmont report on Navy's statistical methods submitted to Under Sec'y.
Nov. 23 Adm. W.D. Leahy, USN (Ret.) appointed Ambassador to France.    
Dec. 2     Central Statistical Division transferred from Office of Chief of Naval Operations to Sec'y Office.
Dec. 10 British attack Italians in Egypt    
Dec, 15   President confirms delegation of priority power to National Defense Advisory Commission (NDAC).

Agreement reached on priorities between ANMB and NDAC.

Dec. 17     Rear Admiral E.J. King assumes command Patrol Force, United States Fleet.
Dec. 19     Palmyra Island Pacific Ocean, placed under jurisdiction of Sec'y of the Navy.
Dec. 20   President announces plan for an Office of Production Management.  
Dec. 22   Export control extended to cover all articles and material except exports to Canada.  
Jan. 2   Machine tool pool order system initiated.  
Jan. 6   President defined "the four freedoms" in message to Congress.  
Jan. 7   Office of Production Management established.  
Jan. 10     Certification Supervisory Unit established in Under Sec'y Office to administer Tax Amortization Statute.
Jan. 29   United States-British Staff conversations to determine joint strategy in case of U.S. involvement in war begin in Washington.  
Feb, 1 Japanese secure military concessions in French Indo-China.   U.S. Fleet reorganized under Atlantic Fleet, Adm. E.J. King, C-in-C.; Pacific Fleet, Adm. H.E. Kimmel, C-in-C.; and Asiatic Fleet, Adm. T.C. Hart, C-in-C.
Feb. 3   Defense Contract Service Section established in the Office of Production Management.  
Feb. 24     Ralph A. Bard becomes Ass't Sec'y of Navy.


Date Selected War Events U.S. Defense and War Measures Navy Department Measures,
Organization, and Policies
Feb. 26     Sec'y orders cooperation of all Navy procurement officers with Defense Contract Service.
Mar. 1 Bulgaria joins the Axis. Senate creates Truman Committee to investigate defense program.  
Mar. 11   Lend-Lease Act passed.  
Nar, 14     CNO Material Procurement Section established as record and action agency for all matters pertaining to Lend-Lease.
Mar. 17   Priorities Administrative Order No. 1 defined working areas of ANMB and Priorities Division of Office of Production Management. Contract made with management engineering firm of Booz, Frye, Allen, and Hamilton to survey operations of Sec'y's office, later extended to all Bureaus and activities of Navy Department.
Mar. 21   First OPM "M" Order limited use of aluminum.  
Mar. 27   U.S. appropriates $7,000,000,000 for Lend-Lease.  
Mar. 28   First OPM "E" Order imposed on use of machine tools.  
Apr. 6 Yugoslavia and Greece invaded by Germany.    
Apr. 9     USS North Carolina (BB-55) commissioned at New Yorik. First new battleship since USS West Virginia commissioned Dec. 1, 1923.
Apr. 11   Office of Price Administration and Civilian Supply established under Leon Henderson.  
Apr. 13 Russia signs neutrality pact with Japan.    
Apr. 22 U.S. send Army reinforcements into Philippine Islands    
Apr. 28     Navy responsibilities for Lend-Lease program assigned to Adm. J.M. Reeves, USN.
May 6   Plant Site Board established in Purchases Division, Office of Production Management.  
May 12 Ambassador Nomura presents Japan's proposal for "Just peace in Pacific" to Secretary of State.    
May 20   Office of Civilian Defense established.  
May 21     Under Secretaries of War and Navy replaced by Ass't Secretaries on ANMB.
May 27   Unlimited national emergency proclaimed by President.  
May 28   Harold Ickes designated as Petroleum Coordinator.  
June 12     All Naval Reservists not in deferred status called to active duty.
June 22 Germany invades Russia. Italy and Rumania declare war on Russia.    
June 24   President releases Russian credits and promises American aid.  


Date Selected War Events U.S. Defense and War Measures Navy Department Measures,
Organization, and Policies
June 24   First Office of Production Management reorganization incluldes establishment of Copmmodity Sections and Defense Industry Advisory Committees.  
June 25 Finland declares war on Russia.    
June 28   Officicals of Office of Scientific Reearch and Development (OSRD) 3wtblished with National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) and Committee on Medical Research (CMR) as it operating agencies.  
June 30     Expanding war production through subcontracting stressed by Navy Department.

Naval vessels on hand (all atypes)--1,899. Personnel: Navy--284,427; Marine Corps--19,235. Total personn358,021.

July 1     Naval Coastal Frontiers are established: North Atlantic, Southern, Caribbean, Panama, Pacific Southern, Pacific Northern, and Philippine.
July 7 U.S. occupies Iceland.    
July 10     Procurement Legal Division established in Office of Under Sec'y.
July 12     General Order #150 establishes Office of Coordinator of Research and Development.
July 13 Great Britain and Russia sign mutual aid pact.    
July 20   Leon Henderson proposes 50% cut in production of automobiles, refrigerators, and washing machines.  
July 21   National aluminum salvage drive started.  
July 30 Churchill rejects plan to create British Ministry of Production to coordinate all war production. President asks Congress for legislation to prevent inflation.

Office of Inter-American Affairs established.

Economic Defense Board established under Henry Wallace to coordinate international activities of an economic character.

Aug. 6-9 "Atlantic Charter" conference held between President and Prime Minister aboard warship off Argentia.    
Aug. 28   Office of Price Administration and Civilian Supply becomes Office of Price Administration.

Supply Priorities and Allocations Board (SPAB) established.

Sep. 2   Donald M. Nelson succeeds E.R. Stettinius, Jr., as Director of Priorities Division of OPA.  
Sep. 4   Division of Contract Distribution under Floyd Odlum replaces Defense Contract Service in OPM.  


Date Selected War Events U.S. Defense and War Measures Navy Department Measures,
Organization, and Policies
Sep. 5     Artemus L. Gates becomes first Ass't. Sec'y of the Navy for Air since 1932.
Sep. 9   SPAB announces restrictions on nonessential building and construction work.  
Sep. 18   Congress extends service period of armed forces.  
Sep. 28   Navy sets up measures for protecting ships in commerce in U.S. defensive waters.  
Oct. 7     Sec'y of Navy authorized to negotiate contracts for machine tools without competitive bidding.
Oct. 20 Siege of Moscow begins.    
Oct. 27     Material Division (Op-24) established 9n CNO.
Oct. 28   President established Lend-Lease Administration under E.R. Stettinius Jr.  
Oct. 30   Tax Amortization Statue amended.  
Oct. 31 American destroyer Reuben James torpedoed and sunk in Atlantic.    
Nov. 1     Coast Guard placed under jurisdiction of Navy Department for duration of National Emergency.
Nov. 7 Sec'y of State Hull warns U.S. Cabiunet that relations with Japan are extremely critical.    
Nov. 15 Special Japanese envoys, Nomura and Kurusu, arrive in Washington to discuss basis for peace.    
Nov. 17 Congress revises Nuetrality Act to permit arming of merchant ships.    
Nov. 26   Eberstadt report on ANMB submitted to c-chairmen of board.  
Nov. 27     Adm. H.R. Stark, CNO, sends "war warning" message to commanders of Pacific and Atlantic Fleets.
Nov. 29   Steel plants put under complete allocation in first general allocation order.  
Nov. 30 Japanese Foreign Minister Tojo rejects U.S. proposals for settling Rar East crisis.    
Dec. 7 Japanese carrier-based aircraft and submarines attack Pearl Harbor.
[Attacks also made on Philippines & Malaya.]
Dec. 8 U.S. and Great Britain declare war on Japan.
[Japanese Imperial Rescript issued declaring war on U.S.]
Dec. 10 Japanese land in Philippine Islands. Under Sec'ys Forrestal and Patterson request military items be eliminated from proposed Price Control legislation.  
Dec. 11 {Germany and Italy declare war on U.S.]
U.S. declares war on Italy and Germany.
Dec. 16 Wide German retreat forced on Eastern front.   President appoints Commission headed byt Associate Justice Owen J. Roberts to investigate Pearl Harbor attack.


Date Selected War Events U.S. Defense and War Measures Navy Department Measures,
Organization, and Policies
Dec. 17   Economic Defense Board changes its name to Board of Ecohnomic Warfare. Rear Admiral C.W. Nimitz designated to relieve Adm. H.E. Kimmel as Ci-in-C, Pacific Fleet.
Dec. 18   First War Powers Act passed, giving the President authority to create and reorganize executive agncies, make defense contracts, control trade and authorize use of negotiated contracts for any department or agency of the government at the President's discretion.

Office of Defense Transportation established.

Dec. 20     Adm. E.J. King designated C-in-C U.S. Fleet with headquarters in Navy Department, Washington, D.C.
Dec. 22   Prime Minister Churchill and representatives of British armed forces arrive Washington to discuss combined strategy.  
Dec. 23 Wage falls.    
Dec. 25 Hong Kong falls.    
Dec. 30     Adm. E.J. King assumes duties as C-in-C U.S. Fleet.
Dec. 31 Adm. C.W. Nimitz assumee ossumes command of Pacific Fleet. (On April 3 also C-in-C Pacific Ocean Areas.)    
Jan. 1     Adm. R.E. Ingersoll succeeds Adm. E.J. King as CINCLANT.
Jan. 2 Japanese forces occupy Manila and nearby Cavite Navy Yard.    
Jan. 5   Nationwide tire rationing becomes effective.  
Jan. 6   Production goals set for 1942 included 80,000 planes, 45,000 tanks, 20,000 anti-aircraft guns and eight million tons of shipping.  
Jan. 7     Sec'y of Navy directs all Naval activities to promote subcontracting.
Jan. 12   National War Labor Board established.  
Jan. 15 American-British-Dutch-Australian Supreme Command is established. Adm. T.C. Hart has [C-in-C Asiatic Fleet] command of naval forces under Field Marshall Wavell. Truman Committee report criticizes big business, Office of Production Management, and others for lag in war produciton.  
Jan. 16   President establishes War Production Board (WPB) replacing Office of Production Management and SPAB. Chairman Donald M. Nelson, given given overall authority on war production and procurement.  
Jan. 19 Red Army "Siege of Moscow"    
Jan. 21   Production of automobiles and light trucks curtailed.  
Jan. 23 First meeting Combined Chiefs of Staff established by Presedit Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill at Washington conferences, Dec. 24, 1941-Jan. 14, 1942.    


Date Selected War Events U.S. Defense and War Measures Navy Department Measures,
Organization, and Policies
Jan. 26   Combined Raw Materials Board (U.S. & Great Britain) established to regulate the supply of essential raw materials.

Combined Shipping Adjustment Board established.

Jan. 27 American troops arrive in Northern Ireland.    
Jan. 30   Congress passes Emergenchy Price Control Act. Sec'y of Navy establishes Office of Procurement and Material (OP&M) and places it in Office of Under Secretary.
Jan. 31     Vice Adm. S.M. Robinson appointed Chief of OP&M.
Feb. 1 Two carrier task forcs (VAdm. W.F. Halsey and Rear Adm. F.J. Fletcher) and a bombardment group (Rear Adm. R.A. Spruance) attack Kwajalein, Wotje, Maloelap, Jaluit, and Mili in Marshalls and Makin in Gilberts.    
Feb. 6   President and Prime Minister announce establkishment of Combined Chiefs of Staff.  
Feb. 7   War Shipping Administration (WSA) established.  
Feb. 13   WPB notes acute shortage of alloy materials for steel production.  
Feb. 15 Singapore falls.    
Feb. 17 Seabees (1st Naval Construction Battalion) arrive at Bora Bora, Society Islands.    
Feb. 18     ANMB issued revised "Priroties Instructions."
Feb. 21     President approves reconstituted ANMB composed of the Under Sec'ys of War and Navy with a civilian chairman.
Feb. 23   Production of domestic refrigerators halted.  
Feb. 24   Housing functions consolidated under National Housing Agency.  
Feb. 27 Battle of Java Sea begins.    
Feb. 28   War Department reorganized under Army Ground Forces, Army Air Forces, and Army Service Forces, and placed Material Procurement under Army Service Forces.  
Mar. 1 Battle of Sunda Straits. Heavy cruiser Houston sunk by Japanese torpedoes and gunfire.    
Mar. 3     Subchaser program given top priority. Directive of WPB makes negotiation of many contracts mandatory.

Ferdinand Eberstadt appointed first civilian chairman of ANMB.

Mar. 8 Japanese gtroops land on New Guinea.    


Date Selected War Events U.S. Defense and War Measures Navy Department Measures,
Organization, and Policies
Mar. 12     Office of Commander-in-Chief U.S. Fleet and Chief of Naval Operations combined under Adm. E.J. King.
Mar. 13 Japanese invade Solomon Islands    
Mar. 16     Working relations between WPB and Soervices defined.
Mar. 26   lGuaranteed Production Loans System for War, Navy (Navy V-Loands), and Federal Reserve approved by the President. Adm. E.J. King relives Adm. H.R. Stark as CNO; Adm. King become C-in-C, U.S. Fleet and CNO.
Mar. 27   Second War Power Act approved carrying futher provisions for seizure of property and enforcement of priorities and rationing.  
Apr. 4     Huge landing craft building program inaugurated.
Management Engineer Office established under Ass't Sec'y of the Navy.
Apr. 8     Hydographic Office and naval Observatory transferred from BuNav to CNO.
Apr. 9 Battan fall to Japanese.    
Apr. 18 Tokyo bombed by U.S. Army aircraft launched form Navy aircraft carrier Hornet. War Manpower Commission established.  
Apr. 21   Under Sec'y of War Patterson blames WPB for priorities given rubber program with high octane gasoline shortage at critical stage.  
Apr. 24     Navy Price Adjustment established to adjust excessive profits.
Apr. 28   OPA issues general maximum price regulations establishing highest prices of March 1942 as ceilings.  
May 2     Office of Inspection Administration established within OP&M to direct inspection activities of technical bureaus.
May 4 Battle of Coral Sea. Strategic virory for U.S. carrier-based naval aircraft halts Japanese push southeastward. First battle in modern naval history in which opposing warships did not exchange a shot.    
May 5   Use of steel forbidden in over 400 civilian products.
Office of Defense Transportation received great authority, including control of civilian (domestic) transportation.
May 6 Corregidor falls to Japanese.   Finance Section of OP&M created to administer guaranteed production loan program.
May 13     Bureau of Navigation redesignated Bureau of Naval Personnel.
May 15   Gasoline rationing went into effect on East Coast.  
May 18     Incentive Division established in Office of of the Under Sec'y to increase production.
Office of Naval Inspector General (Adm. C.P. Snyder) established.


Battle of Savo Island. Three U.S. and one Australian heavy cruiser sunk.
Date Selected War Events U.S. Defense and War Measures Navy Department Measures,
Organization, and Policies
May 30 RAF raids Cologne in greatest bombing to date, neutralization of Ruhr industry begins.    
June 3 Japanese bomb Dutch Harbor.    
Jun 3-6 U.S. Navy victorious in Battle of Midway--one of the most decisive battles in naval history--the turning point in the Pacific War.    
June 9   Combined Production and Resources Board(U.S. & Great Britain) established with D.M. Nelson as U.S. member.

Combined Food Board established with representatives from U.S., Great Britain and Canada.

June 11   Smaller War Plants Corporation Act passed by Congress and agency made responsible to WPB.  
June 12 Japanese land in Aleutian Islands.    
June 13   Office of War Information established.  
June 25 U.S. Army established European Theater of Operations under Maj. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower.    
June 30     Naval vessels on hand (all types)--5612. Personnel: Navy--640,570; Marine Corps--143,528; Coast Guard--58,998. Total personnel--843,096. Naval semi-annual expenditures--$6,300,000,000.
July 1   Production Requirements Plan (PRP) made mandatory.  
July 8   Reorganization in WPB abolishes Materials and Production Divisions and establishes first vice-chairman and deputy chairman.  
July 10     Fair Employment Practices order issued as joint policy of War and Navy Departments.
July 16   War Labor Board announced wage stabilization policy in "Little Steel" case.  
July 19     Army-Navy "E" Award created.
July 20   President Roosevelt appoints Adm. William D. Leahy as his Chief of Staff (Adm. Leahy became Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff).  
July 30     Women's Naval Reserve 9WAVES) established.
Aug. 6   President appoints Baruch Committee to conduct study of rubber program.  
Aug. 8 U.S> Marines land on Guadalcanal.    
Aug. 9    
Aug. 19 Allied commandos raid Dieppe.    
Sep. 7 German troops begin heavy frontal attack on Stalingrad. War Manpower Commission restricted movement of workers in lumber and non-ferrous metals industries.  


Date Selected War Events U.S. Defense and War Measures Navy Department Measures,
Organization, and Policies
Sep. 10   Baruch Rubber Report submitted to President.  
Sep. 17   President establishes Office of Rubber Director in WPB under W.M. Jeffers. Leo Henderson agrees to refrain from further price control of military items provided the services control such prices
Sep. 18   Charles E. Wilson named Production Vice-Chairman of WPB.  
Sep. 22     Industrial Manpower Section established in Office of Ass't Sec'y of the Navy.
Sep. 25   Rubber Director Jeffers orders nationwide rationing of gasoline, effective Dec. 1, 1942.  
Oct. 2   Stabilization Act approved, authorizing price ceilings on food and fixed wages.  
Oct. 3   Office of Economic Stabilization established under James F. Byres.  
Oct. 4 P. Eberstadt resigns as ANMB Chairman and becomes Program ice Chairman of WPB.    
Oct. 8   Closing of gold mines ordered to relieve manpower shortage.  
Oct. 10   WPB directs procurement agencies to avoid critical labor areas in placing war contracts.  
Oct. 11030 After severe fighting and heavy losses on land and sea, U.S. forces retain control of Guadalcanal and stop Japanese advance toward Australia through Solomons area.    
Oct. 15   Fuel oil rationing begins in East and Middle West.  
Oct. 17 WPB Facility Clearance Board and Review Committee organized.    
Oct. 23 Gen. Montgomery's Eight Army begins push from El Ala mein. Army and Navy Electronics Production Agency (ANEPA) established.  
Nov. 2   First draft of Controlled Materials Plan (CMP) announced.  
Nov. 8 U.S. and British forces land in North Africa.    
Nov. 11 Germany occupies all of France.    
Nov. 13   Draft age lowered to 18.  
Nov. 23 Russian counteroffensive at Stalingrad traps German Sixth Army of 330,000.    
Nov. 27 Greater part of French fleet scuttled at Toulon.    
Dec. 2   Petroleum Administration for War established under Sec'y of Interior, superceding Office of Petroleum Coordinator.  
Dec. 8   Rubber program given overriding priority above all other war production programs.  
Dec. 13     Negotiation Division established within Procurement Branch of OP&M.


Date Selected War Events U.S. Defense and War Measures Navy Department Measures,
Organization, and Policies
Dec. 13     Coordinated legal services set up in Procurement Legal Division.
Dec. 1`7   Leo Henderson submits resignation as Price Administrator, effective Jan. 18, 1943.  
Dec. 17     Executive Office of the Sec'y of the Navy (ESOS) officially so designated.
Dec. 24 Admiral Darlan, Chief of Staff in French North Africa, assassinated.    
Dec. 31 Naval personnel on active duty total 1,259,167.
Naval semi-annual expenditures--$7,600,000,000.
Jan. 2   Increased production goals set for 1943.  
Jan. 6   President Roosevelt submits war budget exceeding $100,000,000,000.  
Jan. 7   OPA ban on automobile pleasure driving put into effect.  
Jan. 14 President and Prime Minister begin 10-day conference at Casablanca.    
Feb. 1   Occupational deferments denied 18-22 age group. Material Coordinating Agency of the Bureau of Ships formally established in New York City.
Second overriding rubber program directive comes into conflict with Navy Destroyer Escort Program.
Feb. 2     Office of Navy Rubber Director established under Arthur M. Hill.
Feb. 13     Marine Corps Women's Reserve organized.
Feb. 16   F. Eberstadt, Program Vice-Chairman, resigns from WPB. C.E. Wilson named Executive Vice-Chairman and given broad executive powers.  
Feb. 20   Office of Civilian Supply submits program of "bedrock" civilian needs to James F. Byrnes.  
Mar. 10   Truman Committee files second annual report on war program and war production.  
Mar. 17     OP&M; directive outlines procedure for coordinating Navy Facilities expansion with Controlled Materials Plan (CMP).
Mar. 18     OP&o;M directed to supervise inventory records and redistribution of materials.
Mar. 19   Third War Production Board reorganization crystallized bt administrative order.  
Apr. 1 Merchant ship losses to German submarines reach peak. Nationwide food rationing put into effect. Controlled Materials Plan begins to operate on a partial basis.
Apr. 4 President issues "Hold the "Line order to freeze prices and wages.    


Date Selected War Events U.S. Defense and War Measures Navy Department Measures,
Organization, and Policies
Apr. 8 British and American Armies join in Tunisia.    
Apr. 19   War Food Administration established under direction of Chester C. Davis.  
apr. 27 Russia suspends relations with Polish Government in Exile.    
May 12 Axis resistance in Africa collapses.    
May 20     Tenth Fleet established under CominCh, Adm. E.J. King, to control U.S. anti-submarine operations in Atlantic.
Bower report on organization and functions of OP&M submitted to the Sec'y of the Navy.
May 25     Resources Branch of OP&M eliminated, replaced by Program and Priorities Branch of OP&M.
May 27   Office of War Mobilization established under James F. Byrnes.  
June 12     Sec'y of the Navy directs prompt conversion of Letters of Intent Of Intent into definite contracts.
June 30 Allied losses from German submarines decline sharply for third consecutive months, sign of victory in Battle of the Atlantic.   Naval semi-annual expenditures--$13m700,000,000.
July 1   Controlled Materials Plan (CMP) becomes mandatory.  
July 3   Local Selective Service Boards ordered to reclassify draft age fathers.  
July 5 Germans launch summer offensive in central Ukraine, taking Kharkov and other cities.    
July 6 Allies land on New Georgia.    
July 10   Sicily invaded by Allies.  
July 14   Renegotiation made applicable to agreements for payment of a commission for procurement of war contract.  
July 15   Board of Economic Warfare replaced by Office of Economic Warfare under Leo T. Crowley.  
July 21`     Navy Procurement Review Board established.
July 25 Mussolini overthrown by coup d'etat    
Aug. 18     Office of Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Air established. (RAdm. J.A. McCain, first DCNO(Air).
Aug. 19     Sec'y of Navy designates OP&M as agency within Navy to handle surplus property.
Sep. 1     VT-loan program sponsored jointly by Army, Navy, and Federal Reserve.
Sep. 3 Italian mainland invaded.    
Sep. 9 Italy surrenders unconditionally.    
Sep. 10 Rome seized by Germans.    
Sep. 17   Baruch Manpower Report urges deferment on occupational grounds and pooling of labor in critical areas.  
Oct. 1 Naples taken by Allied Armies.    
Oct. 3 Japanese complete evacuation of Solomons.    


Date Selected War Events U.S. Defense and War Measures Navy Department Measures,
Organization, and Policies
Oct. 4   First area Production Urgency Committees established to handle West Coast manpower and production problems.  
Oct. 14 U.S. air rad on Schweinfurt ball bearing plants.    
Oct. 19-30 Moscow conference agrees on Anglo-U.S.-Russian post-war collaboration and unconditional surrender of Axis.    
Oct. 20   War Contracts Price Adjustment Board formed to handle renegotiation problems of procurement agencies.  
Oct. 27   WPB announced end of expanding production by subsidizing marginal mines.  
Oct. 29   Revised WPB Aluminum Order permits moderate relaxation in prohibition on the use of that metal.  
Nov. 5   Senate votes for post-war world organization to protect the peace.
Truman Committee report urges attention be given to problems of contract termination, surplus property disposal, and reconversion.
Nov. 12     Navy Manpower Survey Board established,
Nov. 18   Senate Committee on Post-War Economy Planning and Policy issues brief report on reconversion.  
Nov. 22-26 Roosevelt, Churchill, and Chiang Kai-shek confer at Cairo.    
Nov 24     Industrial Readjustment Branch established within OP&M.
Nov. 27     Accelerated landing craft program initiated to meet needs of European invasion.
Nov. 28-Dec. 1 Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin confer at Teheran.    
Dec. 6 Gen. Eisenhower named to command Allied invasion armies.    
Dec. 15 American forces land on New Britain Island, threatening Rabaul.    
Dec. 17   Petroleum Administration for War protests that landing craft priority conflicts with 100 octane gasoline plant construction.  
Dec. 30     Naval personnel on active duty total 2,318,116.
Naval semi-annual expenditures $12,300,000,000.
Jan. 4 Russian Army enters Poland.    
Jan. 9   Maury Maverick named vice-chairman of Smaller War Plants Corporation. Navy Department announces accelerated landing craft program of 65,000 units.


Date Selected War Events U.S. Defense and War Measures Navy Department Measures,
Organization, and Policies
Jan. 17   Donald M. Nelson states there can be no general resumption of civilian production with major offensive impending.  
Jan. 20     Shore Establishment and Civilian Personnel Division (SECP) established under Office of Assistant Sec'y.
Jan. 22 Allied Fifth Army lands at Anzio, south of Rome.    
Feb. 10   Manpower Priority Program devised in an attempt to meet growing shortages of skilled labor.  
Feb. 15   Baruch-Hancock report submitted to Congress on "War and Post War Adjustments Policy."  
Feb. 19 Marine and Army troops, supported by naval bombardment, land on Eniwetok in Marshall Islands.    
Feb. 23     Bureau of Aeronautics sets up Contract Termination Division.
Feb. 24     Program and Priorities Branch in OP&M combined with Production Branch.
Feb. 25   Revenue Bill, passed over Presidential veto; includes moderate tax increase, revised and continued law on renegotiation, and provides for War Contracts Price Adjustment Board.  
Mar. 3   Third annual report of Truman Committee urges further action to prepare for resumption of civilian production.  
Mar. 10     Murray D. Safanie of OP&M submits Inventory Control Report to Under Sec'y Forrestal.
Mar. 14   Selective Service Order cancel deferments of men 18-26 except certified "key men" in essential occupations.  
Mar. 16     Sec'y designated certain uniform provisions which were to be included in all fixed price supply contracts..
Apr. 20     Sec'ys of War and Navy urged National Service Act, or legislation to draft workers for war industry.
Apr. 28     Sec'y of the Navy Frank Knox died.
May 10     John Creamer submitted Inventory Control Report to Under Sec'y.
May 17   WPB held emergency conference on critical manpower shortages in foundry industry.  
May 19     James V. Forrestal named Sec'y of the Navy.
May 23     Navy Inventory Control Office established in Office of Chief of Naval Operations.
June 4 Allied troops occupy Rome.    
June 6 Allied forces invade France on Normandy Coast. Preferential treatment for Smaller War Plants authorized in relaxation of quotas on civilian production.  


Date Selected War Events U.S. Defense and War Measures Navy Department Measures,
Organization, and Policies
June 9     Inventory Control Division transferred from Production Branch of OP&M to CNO.
June 15 First of German robot bombs fall on England.
U.S. Naval Task Force lands Marine and Army troops on Saipan in Marianas.
June 17   Cut back of Tank and Heavy Military Trucks Programs.  
June 18 C.E. WIlson announces plan to allow industry to build working models, purchase machine tools, use aluminum and magnesium, and produce civilian items under "spot authorization" in reconversion to civilian production.    
June 19 Naval Carrier Task Force in Battle of Philippine Sea prevents Japanese interference with Saipan landing.   Navy Price Adjustment Board reconstituted.
June 22 Russians open powerful offensive on central front. President signs "G-I Bill of Rights," providing financial and educational benefits to veterans.  
June 24     Ralph A. Bard named Under Sec'y of the Navy.
June 30     Naval personnel on active duty total 2,981,365.
Naval semi-annual expenditures $14,500,000,000.
July 8     Massie Report reaffirms conclusions of Paget Survey and urges increased control of financing procedures by OP&M.
July 27 Normandy landings shatter German defense and start pursuit across France.   Sec'y's directive tightens control of credit to Navy contractors.
Aug. 3     Procurement Legal Division becomes Office of General Counsel in the Navy Department.
Aug. 15 Allied troops land on coast of Southern France between Toulon and Cannes.    
Aug. 18     OP&M submits report on "Spares and Spare Parts" to Sec'y of the Navy.
Aug. 25 Paris liberated.    
Sep. 7     Emphasis in Naval ship building shifted from combatant vessels and landing craft to auxiliaries.
Sep. 11     1944 V-Loan Guarantee Agreement authorized.
Sep. 12 American troops cross German border near Aachen.    
Sep. 28     Property Disposition Directive authorizes sale of government-owned surplus property.
Oct. 15     Navy Bankers Advisory Credit Committee appointed to advise OP&M on credit.


Date Selected War Events U.S. Defense and War Measures Navy Department Measures,
Organization, and Policies
Oct. 16     Sec'y directs contractive officers to use incentive contracts where they will be of advantage.
Oct. 19     Office of Patents and Inventions established by Navy Department.
Oct. 23-26 Battle for Leyte Gulf.    
Nov. 1     Navy rocket production given highest priority.
Nov. 15     Navy Packaging Board created by OP&M to coordinate packing Navy materials.
Dec. 2     Office of Fiscal Director established in Sec'y of Navy office.
Dec. 14     Rank of five-start general and admiral created.
Dec. 16 German Army stages a counterattack, pushing back Allied offensive in Belgium.    
Dec. 31     Personnel in uniform on active duty under Navy Dept. total 3,201,755.
Naval semi-annual expenditures $14,900,000,000.
Jan. 2   James F. Bynes, Director of War Mobilization and Reconversion, asks legislation to strengthen manpower controls. ANMB submits its recommendation to Congress for a permanent stockpile for the nation in compliance with the Surplus Property Act of 1944.
Jan. 9 Army forces land in Lingayen Gulf area, P.I., under cover of naval gunfire and carrier-based aircraft. President recommends 83 billion dollar budget to Congress.  
Jan. 17 Warsaw liberated.    
Jan. 20 Hungary signs armistice with Allies.    
Jan. 21   Franklin D. Roosevelt begins fourth terms as President of the United States.  
Jan. 30     H. Struve Hensel named Ass't Sec'y of Navy.
Jan. 31     "Analysis of Material Function," Admiral Snyder's report on overlapping functions of OP&M and CNO submitted to Sec'y of the Navy.
Feb. 1   WPB restricts War procurement.  
Feb. 4 Belgium completely cleared of German troops. Battle of Bulge ends.
Manila entered by U.S. troops.
Feb. 6     Sec'y assigns cognizance of OP&M to Ass't Sec'y of the Navy.
Feb. 8 Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin meet at Yalta.    
Feb. 9     Requirements Review Board established in the Office of the Ass't Sec'y of the Navy.
Feb. 14     Planning and Statistics Branch of OP&M abolished.


Date Selected War Events U.S. Defense and War Measures Navy Department Measures,
Organization, and Policies
Feb. 19 Marine land on Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, supported by intensenaval gunfire and air attack.    
Mar. 5 Cologne captured by Allies.    
Mar. 10   Leo T. Crowley of FEA announces total Lend-Lease aid through January 1945, reached $35,557,000,000.  
Apr. 1 U.S. forces invade Okinawa.    
Apr. 2   Director of War Mobilization James F. Byrnes resigns; Fred M. Vinson, Federal Loan Administrator, succeeds him.  
Apr. 10     Navy Material Redisribution and Disposal Administration of Bureau of Supplies and Accounts transferred to OP&M.
Apr. 12 President Roosevelt died; Vice-President Turman sworn in as President.    
aApr. 13 Russian Army takes possession of Vienna.    
Apr. 20     Joint Termination Regulations revised.
Apr. 21 United Nations Confgerence begins in San Francisco.    
Apr. 28 Mussolini killed by Italian partisans.    
May 1 Germany announces death of Hitler; Admiral Doenitz named as his successor.    
May 2 Berlin falls to Russian Army.   Management Engineers Report submitted on survey of Procurement Branch of OP&M.
May 7 Germany surrenders unconditionally to western Allies and Russia.    
May 8 V-E Day proclaimed in Allied countries.    
May 15     Office of Research and Inventions established in Sec'y's Office.
June 21 Okinawa battle ends with 6,990 American dead.   Navy Department Board of Contract Appeals established.
June 30     Personnel in uniform on active duty under Navy Department total 4,031,097.
Navy semi-annual expenditres--$15,700,000,000. Fleet consists of 1171 major combatant ships out of a total of 50,759 vessels.
July 1     John L. Sullivan becomes Ass't Sec'y of the Navy for Air.
July 3     Artemus L. Gates becomes Under Sec'y of the Navy.
July 5 Philippine Islands liberated.    
July 14 Battleships, cruisers, and destroyers (Rear Adm. J.F. Shafroth) bombard coastal city of Kamaishi, Honshu, Japan; this is the first naval gunfire bombardment of Japanese homeland.    
July 16 TRINITY: 1st A-bomb test at Alamogordo, N.M.   Duties and responsibilities ressigned to Sec'y, Under Sec'y, Ass't Sec'y, and Ass't Sec'y for Air.
July 17 Truman, Churchill, and Stalin confer at Potsdam.    


Date Selected War Events U.S. Defense and War Measures Navy Department Measures,
Organization, and Policies
July 25     Second B ower Report submitted on Organization, Funcitons, and Personnel Requirements of OP&M.
July 26 Clement R. Atlee succeeds Winston Churchill as Prime Minister of England.    
Aug. 6 Atom bomb dropped on city of Hiroshima.    
Aug. 8 Atom bomb dropped on Nagasaki.
Russia declares war on Japan and invades Manchuria.
Aug. 10 Japan asks for peace with condition that Emoperor Hirohito retain rights as sovereign.    
Aug. 14 President Truman announces cessation of hostilities with Japan and her acceptance of Allied demand of unconditional surrender.    
Aug. 15   Fleet Adm. C.W. Nimitz orders Pacific Fleet to cease offensive operations against Japan.  
Aug. 18   Army and Navy Joint Specification Council and Board established.  
Aug. 20   WPB lifts 210 wartime controls over American industry to speed output of civilian supplies. Office of Procurement and Material replaced by Material Division of the Ass't Sec'y of the Navy.
Aug. 27   Third Fleet (Fleet Adm. W.F. Halsey) stands into Sagami Baty, the outer bay to Tokyo, Japan.  
Sep. 2 Japanese Surrender document signed on board U.S.S. Missouri.    
Sep. 14     Shore Establishment and Civilian Personnel redesignated Office of Industrial Relations under the Under Sec'y of the Navy.
Sep. 18   Sec'y of War Stimson resigns; Robert P. Patterson, Under Sec'y of War, succeeds him.  
Oct. 4   War Producton Board terminated and Civilian Production Administration established.  
Oct. 10     Headquarters in Washington of the C-in-C, U.S. Fleet (Fleet Adm. E.J. King) disestablished.
Oct. 12   War Assets Corporation determines policies, principles, methods, procedures, and standards relating to removal of government-owned plant equipment form private plants of war contractors.  
Nov. 15   Congressional investigation of Pearl Harbor starts in Washington.  
Nov. 21     Facilities Review Board established.
Dec. 7     Inventory Control Division of CNO transferred to Material Division in the Office of the ss't Sec'y of the Navy.


Table of Contents
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1. Those who are interested in a more detailed chronology of Naval Operations should consult United States Naval Chronology, World War II, prepared by the History Division, Navy Department, and published by the Government Printing Office, Washington, 1955.

2. The author is indebted to the Princeton University Press for permission to use the device of a three-column chronology employed by Robert H. Connery in his book, The Navy and the Industrial Mobilization in World War II, published by the Princeton University Press in 1951, owners of the copyright. Many additions were, of course, made to the chronology and some corrections were found necessary. The book is listed in the Bibliography and is cited in various places in this work.

Transcribed and formatted for HTML by Patrick Clancey, HyperWar Foundation