Dissertation Information for Robert Goldberg
- Robert Goldberg
- Library and Information Science
- Rutgers University (USA) (1975)
- Ralph Blasingame
- Bertram B. Masia
- Ernest Deprospo
- Thomas H. Mott Jr.
MPACT Status: Fully Complete
Title: THE PIES MODEL: A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO LIBRARY PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT
Abstract: The PIES (Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation System) model for libraries is an open systems approach to program development. The model consists of seven steps, four relating to planning and three to implementation. Evaluation is an on-going process, an overlay upon each of the seven steps. The seven steps involved in planning and implementation are as follows:
1. Formulating service goals; 2. Setting objectives; 3. Selecting a program strategy; 4. Designing the program.
5. Making the transition from planning to action;
6. Monitoring the program;
7. Conducting summative evaluation.
Evaluation consists of two types: formative and summative. Formative evaluation ideally is spontaneous and frequent, some event occurring which has precipitated the need for assessment. Realistically, given the antipathy to evaluation felt by many librarians, formative evaluation is prescribed at fixed intervals—a regularized and pre-planned activity. It is anticipated that as evaluation become sn integral part of planning and program-in-action, it will often occur spontaneously because it is recognized as a natural and inextricable element in the planning and implementation process. Summative evaluation is seen as a “concluding” assessment. It takes place at a specified time predetermined in the design stage of planning and is the basis for determining whether the project will continue or terminate. There is a fundamental difference between the two, however: formative evaluation concentrates on improvement in the planning or implementation efforts being evaluated; summative evaluation focuses upon proving the extent to which the effort was “worthwhile” so that rational decisions can be made about continuing or terminating the program. But evaluation is only one element in the EFDR chain – Evaluation, Feedback, Decision, Recycling. During each step in planning and implementation the EFDR chain is functioning. Thus, it is the entire EFDR chain which becomes an overlay on the total program development process. The cycle can be described as follows: 1) Planners evaluate data obtained at the particular step in the process. (Evaluation in the EFDR chain is always of the formative type, since by its nature, it is the function of the chain to improve and not to prove.) 2) The evaluators feed back their findings to appropriate persons. 3) Based upon this feedback a decision is made to take certain action. 4) In accordance with this decision the appropriate action is taken and this is called recycling. We can think of recycling as “the decision acted upon.” As an open system, PIES makes it possible for the library to remain in dynamic equilibrium. The mechanism for this is the EFDR chain which is a kind of “homeostatic control” when the chain has gone through a cycle, the recycling results in an action which reflects the changes which have been affected. Thus, the program development activity is less inclined to “wind down” – an entropic condition – as would be the case in a closed system. But the model is not intended to suggest only a rational approach to program development. The challenge has been to conceptualize a model which at once meets the requirements of sound logic but which at the same time contains non-rational, humanistic, and esthetically pleasing qualities.
MPACT Scores for Robert Goldberg
A = 0
C = 0
A+C = 0
T = 0
G = 0
W = 0
TD = 0
TA = 0
calculated 2008-01-31 06:09:09
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