Dissertation Information for Yaxaio Song
MPACT Status: Fully Complete
Title: Multi-modal surrogates for retrieving and making sense of videos: Is synchronization between the multiple modalities optimal?
Abstract: Video surrogates can help people quickly make sense of the content of a video before downloading or seeking more detailed information. Visual and audio features of a video are primary information carriers and might become important components of video retrieval and video sense-making. In the past decades, most research and development efforts on video surrogates have focused on visual features of the video, and comparatively little work has been done on audio surrogates and examining their pros and cons in aiding users' retrieval and sense-making of digital videos. Even less work has been done on multi-modal surrogates, where more than one modality are employed for consuming the surrogates, for example, the audio and visual modalities. This research examined the effectiveness of a number of multi-modal surrogates, and investigated whether synchronization between the audio and visual channels is optimal. A user study was conducted to evaluate six different surrogates on a set of six recognition and inference tasks to answer two main research questions: (1) How do automatically-generated multi-modal surrogates compare to manually-generated ones in video retrieval and video sense-making? and (2) Does synchronization between multiple surrogate channels enhance or inhibit video retrieval and video sense-making? Forty-eight participants participated in the study, in which the surrogates were measured on the the time participants spent on experiencing the surrogates, the time participants spent on doing the tasks, participants' performance accuracy on the tasks, participants' confidence in their task responses, and participants' subjective ratings on the surrogates. On average, the uncoordinated surrogates were more helpful than the coordinated ones, but the manually-generated surrogates were only more helpful than the automatically-generated ones in terms of task completion time. Participants' subjective ratings were more favorable for the coordinated surrogate C2 (Magic A + V) and the uncoordinated surrogate U1 (Magic A + Storyboard V) with respect to usefulness, usability, enjoyment, and engagement. The post-session questionnaire comments demonstrated participants' preference for the coordinated surrogates, but the comments also revealed the value of having uncoordinated sensory channels.
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