is revictimization or multiple victimization?
of sexual revictimization, according to the CDC,
is based on vulnerability factors. One of these is the pre-existance
of PTSD from a previous assault. Being the victim of child sexual
abuse doubles the likelihood of adult sexual victimization (Parillo
et. al., 2003) (Sarkar, N.; Sarkar, R., 2005).
PTSD levels are actually higher in those who
have been previously victimized than in survivors of only
one assault (Follette
et. al., 1996).
PTSD could give the victim the appearance of vulnerability
in dangerous situations and effect the ability of the victim to defend
found that of the 433 sexually assaulted respondents, two-thirds reported
more than one incident (Sorenson et. al., 1991). Two further studies
also found that women who were victimized more than once or in both
childhood and adolescence had a higher risk for adult revictimization
and more PTSD (Siegel & Williams, 2001), (Breslau et. al., 1999).
Intervention such as counseling for mental
health issues (like PTSD)
and for possible addictions related to the abuse can help women with
child sexual abuse histories overcome some of the abuse-related sequelae
that make them vulnerable to adult revictimization (Parillo et. al.,
2003). Other factors influencing recovery are emotional support from
friends, relations, social and community
supports (Sarkar, N.; Sarkar, R., 2005).
experienced by retraumatized women were that they were more likely
to be alexithymic, show
dissociation scores indicating risk for dissociative disorders, and
to have attempted suicide compared to the other groups (Cloitre et.
Summary of the
reviews the literature on sexual revictimization, covering approximately
90 empirical studies and includes a discussion of prevalence, risk
factors, and correlates of sexual revictimization. Research suggests
that two of three individuals who are sexually victimized will be
revictimized. The occurrence of child- hood sexual abuse and its severity
are the best documented and researched predictors of sexual revictimization.
Multiple traumas, especially childhood physical abuse, and recency
of sexual victimization are also associated with higher risk. There
is preliminary evidence that membership in some ethnic groups or coming
from a dysfunctional family places an individual at a greater risk.
Revictimization is associated with higher distress and certain psychiatric
disorders. People who were revictimized show difficulty in interpersonal
relationships, coping, self-representations, and affect regulation
and exhibit greater self-blame and shame. Existing research on prevention
efforts and treatment is discussed. More longitudinal studies on sexual
revictimization are needed." (Classen, et. al., 2006)
to research on victimization, a small percentage of the population
experiences a relatively large proportion of all crime, and one of
the strongest predictors of victimization is previous victimization.
Robbery victims’ chance of being robbed again is nine times
the chance among people who have not been robbed, and burglary victims’
risk of burglary is four times the risk of people who have not been
burglarized. In addition, researchers have found that one-third to
one-half of women who are physically abused at home are likely to
be abused repeatedly. The highest rate of repeat victimization for
crimes other than domestic violence is among sexual assault survivors.
One study concluded that women who have been sexually assaulted in
the past are 35 times more likely than other women to be sexually
at some point in the future. " Vera
Institute of Justice
assaulted in childhood are twice as likely to be sexually assaulted
in adulthood. Post-traumatic mental problems, acute stress disorders,
depression and other psychological problems are found in victims of
sexual assault. Women often suffer from sleep disorders, nightmare,
anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and diminishing of sexual
urge and pleasure among other disorders following sexual assault or
rape. Recovery is slower in sexual than in non-sexual assault victims.
Factors influencing recovery are emotional support from friends, relations,
social and community supports. Overall social changes in outlook and
perception towards women are needed in the modern society to curb
the sexual assault on women." (Sarkar, N.; Sarkar, R., 2005)
violence and domestic violence are both listed as causal factors for
homelessness in the back grounds of many homeless women (Styron et.
Richard Kluft in his study of survivors who have been sexually abused
by therapists, maintains that sexually abused children are "systematically
taught to disregard their own needs and, hence, are more vulnerable
to abuse in all settings." Viewed in this context, the plight
of battered women and rape victims, for example, may be seen as a
logical consequence of early victimization, rather than the result
of "bad judgement." Another theory is that "a tendency
to "re-enact" with someone else the trauma that one has
experienced at the hands of an earlier perpetrator. This behavior
is attributed to the belief, however unconscious, that 'things will
work out better this time.'" *
See also: Vulnerability
factors for being victimized
is a problem for women and adolescents. "Thirty-nine percent
of rape victims in the NWS [National Women's Survey] had been raped
more than once, and 41.7% of the adolescent victims said that they
had been sexually assaulted more than once."
National Women's Survey
from scholarly articles:
of the women [in the survey] had been revictimized (i.e., experienced
child sexual abuse and at least one instance of adult sexual victimization).
Child sexual abuse was associated with both rape and other sexual
victimization by a sex partner in adulthood, as well as adult rape
by a stranger/nonsex partner. Drug and mental health treatments reduced
abused women's chances of being raped by a sex partner; drug treatment
also decreased the likelihood of other sexual victimization by a sex
partner." - (Parillo et. al., 2003) Association
Between Child Sexual Abuse and Sexual Revictimization in Adulthood
Among Women Sex Partners of Injection Drug Users
Questions to think about: Is being a victim of child sexual abuse
something that increases the risk of adult sexual victimization? If
so then what psychological vulnerabilities are related to this? How
does the perpetrator make this determination?
"The results of
this study indicate not only that victimization and revictimization
experiences are frequent, but also that the level of trauma specific
symptoms are significantly related to the number of different types
of reported victimization experiences."- ( Follette et. al.,
trauma: the impact of child sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, and
Questions to think about:
Are PTSD and psychological problems related to the first sexual assault
a possible motivation to the perpetrator to assault again?
"Also, repeated victimization was related to denial, a symptom
of posttraumatic stress. Denial was discussed in regard to the likelihood
of its increasing the risk of revictimization."- (Roth et. al.,
history and victim-assailant relationship as factors in recovery from
Questions to think about:
Is denial (ptsd) a cause of lack of reporting and lack of followup
care? If so then does denial and lack of psychiatric counseling for
victims relate to repeat victimization?
more than one incident; the average number of incidents per person
was 3.2. Single- and multiple-incident victims of sexual assault did
not differ on a wide range of variables including demographics, mental
disorders, and general functioning (e.g., suicide attempts, family
violence). Thus, once an initial victimization occurred, personal
characteristics of the victim were not related to risk for subsequent
sexual assault." - (Sorenson et. al., 1991) Repeated
"Furthermore, previous events involving assaultive violence—single
or multiple, in childhood or later on—were associated with a
higher risk of PTSD in adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Previous exposure to
trauma signals a greater risk of PTSD from subsequent trauma. "
- (Breslau. et. al., 1999) Previous
Exposure to Trauma and PTSD Effects of Subsequent Trauma: Results
From the Detroit Area Survey of Trauma
to think about: Is the greater risk for PTSD a possible explanation
or cause for lacking coping skills in potentially dangerous scenarios?
Would a perpetrator perceive that?
research and articles
Multiple victimization ; previous victimization (state dependence);
Crime analysis ; Police crime analysis training ; Multiple victimization
; Problem oriented policing; Criminology; Child sexual abuse ; Female
victims ; Sex offense causes ; Spouse abuse causes ; Rape causes ;
Victimization risk ; Adults molested as children; Crime prevention
planning; Crime analysis ; Police crime analysis training ; Problem
oriented policing; Assault and battery ; Burglary ; Victimization
surveys ; Burglary causes ; Victimization risk ; abuse; sexual abuse;
childhood abuse; substance abuse; drug addiction; Risk Factors; Social
Support; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology; Violence; Mental
Disorders/complications; Mental Disorders/psychology ;Rape/prevention
& control ;Rape/psychology ;Adaptation, Psychological ;Adolescent;
Adult; Child Abuse, Sexual/complications; Child Abuse, Sexual/prevention
& control; Child Abuse, Sexual/psychology
Bufkin, J. (1998).
Domestic Violence, Criminal Justice Responses and Homelessness: Finding
the Connection and Addressing the Problem. Journal of Social Distress
and the Homeless, 7(4), 227-240.
Cloitre, M., Rosenberg,
A. Follette, V., Ruzek, J. (2006). Sexual Revictimization: Risk Factors
and Prevention. Cognitive-behavioral therapies for trauma
(2nd ed.). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press, 2006. pp. 321-361. link
model recommended for retraumatized women is a two-phase model in
which the first phase of treatment focuses on skills
training in affect and interpersonal regulation (STAIR). The second
phase of treatment is an eight-session modified
prolonged exposure (MPE) treatment adapted from Foa's treatment
for rape-related posttraumatic stress disorder."
T., Brown, A. (2006). Risk Perception, Rape, and Sexual Revictimization:
A Prospective Study of College Women. Psychology of Women Quarterly,
30 (2) p159-172.
was examined in relation to sexual victimization among 262 college
women. Participants were presented with written vignettes that described
hypothetical situations with a stranger and with an acquaintance.
Participants' hypothetical decision to leave a potentially risky situation
with an acquaintance predicted rape and revictimization during an
8-month follow-up period. Revictimized participants had significantly
delayed responses compared to previously victimized respondents who
were not revictimized. Multivariate models indicated that prior victimization
and delayed risk response increased vulnerability for rape and other
forms of sexual victimization. Results highlight the need to assess
multiple aspects of risk perception, including threat identification
and behavioral responses to hypothetical or real situations. Findings
suggest that delayed response to danger cues might be one factor that
increases vulnerability for revictimization by acquaintances."
Myers, M. (2006).
Coping ability of women who become victims of rape. Dissertation
Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering,
67(2-B), pp. 1159. link
Sarkar, N. N.,
Sarkar, R. (2005) Sexual assault on woman: Its impact on her life
and living in society. Sexual & Relationship Therapy,
20 (4), 407-419
Database: Academic Search Premier
Shields, N., Hanneke,
C., Hotaling, D., Finkelhor, J. Kirkpatrick J., Strauss, M. (Eds)
(1988). Multiple sexual victimization: The case of incest and marital
rape. Family abuse and its consequences: New directions in research.
(pp. 255-269). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
OF STUDIES ON OR INCORPORATING REPEAT VICTIMIZATION
research and articles see page 2