The part of the iceberg that was invisible: the effects.
To most victims the long term effects of the rape are the most important thing of all. This topic addresses the changes in self image, thinking, functioning and major life changes suffered as a direct result of the rape. This is something the victim often has to deal with for their entire life. The four injuries all crime victims suffer are usually listed in victim impact statements as physical, financial, social and emotional.
"Victim impact statements usually describe the harm the offense has had on the victim, including descriptions of the financial, physical, psychological or emotional impact, harm to familial relationships, descriptions of any medical treatments or psychological services required by the victim or the victim's family as a result of the victimization, and the need for any restitution. "
Rape has effects which many survivors suffer regardless of the level of violence involved. This also includes somatic (body) symptoms
a/ Psychological damage and brain functioning
b/ Physical: Scars or injuries.
Financial: Loss of ability to work, educational opportunities lost, legal costs, medical bills.
Pain and suffering (social and emotional): Long term life-altering changes/effects of rape such as loss of ability to work, having to drop out of school, ostracism due to the stigma of rape such as secondary victimization (reactions of others).
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Rape Crisis Information Pathfinder, UNC Chapel Hill, N.C., http://www.ibiblio.org/rcip/