Re: John 6 and KAI EUQUS

From: Ben Crick (
Date: Thu Jun 19 1997 - 22:42:04 EDT

On 19 Jun 97 (09:53:25), wrote:
> I hope I haven't gone to far into getting away from the Greek text,
> but it is the meaning of EUQUS that I am after to ensure that this
> exegetical interpretation is valid. Zerwick downplays the idea
> that EUQUS always means immediately in his Mark section and indicates
> that it should be rendered "and then."
> Anyone having any thoughts on this or books that discuss it, I would
> greatly appreaciate learning from you.


 EUQEWS seems to mean quicker off the mark than EUQUS; but one cannot be
 overly dogmatic about this. On the difference between the two, my Arndt &
 Gingrich refers the enquirer to H von Soden, /Die Schriften des neuen
 Testamenten/, I.2, 1911, p 1391; and H Pernot, Etudes sur la langue des
 Evangiles, 1927, pp 181ff.

 Mark is the young-man-in-a-hurry Evangelist; he uses EUQUS and EUQEWS,
 mostly the latter, to mean "immediately" or "and straightway...".

 Did John have a particular respect for Mark's Gospel over the others?
 1. Mark 2:11-12 KRABBATON John 5:8-9; Luke uses KLINH (except Acts 5:15).
 2. Mark 6:37 DHNARIWN DIAKOSIWN ARTOUS John 6:7; Matthew and Luke omit.
 3. Mark 14:3 PISTIKHS John 12:3; a double hAPAX LEGOMENON, Mark/John.
 4. Mark 14:42 EGEIRESQE AGWMEN John 14:31; a little strained in John?
 5. Mark 14:54 hO PETROS QERMAINOMENOS John 18:18; omitted by Matthew & Luke.

 There is much "Q" material John could have used, but he preferred to
 follow Mark. John never agrees with Matthew and/or Luke against Mark.
 CK Barrett says there was "a permeation of the writer of John's mind by
 Mark" but "he never copies it". So there were the odd phrases which "stick"
 - like KAI EUQUS and EUQEWS.

 As for the pericope itself, William Hendriksen, /John/, Banner of Truth,
 London, 1959, p 227, sees four miracles in one:
 a. Jesus walks on the water;
 b. He causes Peter to do likewise (not in John);
 c. He stills the wind and the waves of the storm (again not in John);
 d. He causes the boat to be immediately on the beach EPI THS GHS.

 Bengel in his /Gnomon/ comments baldly "EUQEWS - immediately) A new
 miracle" (ET, Edinburgh, 1870, vol 2 p 317).

 BF Westcott comments "EPI THS GHS may mean /in the direction of the land/,
 that is, 'moving straight towards the land'; but it more probably means
 /on the land/, being used of the vessel run up on the beach. Compare
 Psalm 107:30. The Synpotists notice that the opposing forces were
 removed (Matt 14:32; Mark 6:51, /the wind ceased/); St John that the
 desired end was gained. Both results followed at once from the presence
 of Christ welcomed." (/Speaker's Commentary/, 1882 ed., ad loc).

 HB Swete, /The Gospel according to St Mark/, 3rd ed., Macmillans,
 London, 1920, p 8, writes on Mark 1:10 s.v. EUQUS:

 "(Wycliffe, /anoon/) is characteristic of Mc. - 'ein Lieblingswort des
 Markus,' Schanz - occuring Mc.41 Mt.19 Lc.7; Mt. shews a similar partiality
 for TOTE. In the LXX (Gen 15:4, 38:29) KAI EUQUS=wehinneh=KAI IDOU, a
 phrase which, though common in the other Gospels, is not used by Mc.
 Of the forms EUQUS, EUQEWS the first only occurs in Mc.; the second
 predominates in the rest of the N.T. (32/12)."


 Ben Crick, BA Bristol, 1963 (hons in Theology)
 232 Canterbury Road, Birchington, Kent, CT7 9TD (UK)

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