A History of the Mahrattas

by James Grant Duff, Esq.

Captain in the first, or grenadier, regiment of Bombay Native Infantry, and late political resident at Satara.

In three volumes

Volume 1


To the honourable Mountstuart Elphinstone, Governor, &c. &c. of Bombay, in testimony of respect and gratitude, of esteem for his private, and of admiration for his public character, this work is inscribed, by his most obedient, humble servant, the author.

Table of Contents


Introduction – Preliminary observations

Respecting the Geography, Chief Features, Climate, People, Religion, Learning, Early History, and Institutions of the Mahratta Country

Chapter 1 – From 1000 to 1478

Conquest of the Deccan by the Mahomedans – They cross the Nerbuddah, and penetrate to Deogurh – Establish their Sovereignty – Deogurh becomes the capital of the Mahomedan Empire in India, and its name changed to Doulutabad – An insurrection – lays the foundation of an independent kingdom in the Deccan – The Bahminee dynasty – Its duration – Condition of the Mahrattas during its existence – Few insurrections of the Mahrattas against their Mahomedan rulers – The dreadful famine, Doorga Dewee – Districts depopulated – Hill-forts in possession of Polygars and robbers – An expedition sent to restore order – Dadoo Nursoo Kelley – His revenue arrangements – A second and a third expedition – Treacherous massacre of the Mahomedan army by a Mahratta Raja – Concan reduced, 1469 – Decline of the Bahminee dynasty, and immediate causes which led to it

Chapter 2 – From 1478 to 1637

Five independent states arise from the dismembered monarchy, which afterwards form the three kingdoms of Ahmednugur, Beejapoor, and Golcondah – The term Deccan as now used – Review of events during the sixteenth century – Forts garrisoned by Mahrattas – Portuguese appear on the Malabar coast – on the shores of Maharashtra – they take Goa – The King of Ahmednugur appoints a Bramin his Peishwa, or prime minister – The king of Beejapoor likewise shows a preference for the natives of Maharashtra – Cavalry – Sillidars and Bargeers – Portuguese ravage the coast, and levy contributions – Battle of Telikotta – Beejanugur state subverted – The kings of Beejapoor and Ahmednugur attack the Portuguese without success – Maharashtra, 1573, possessed, with some exceptions, by Beejapoor and Ahmednugur – Extent of the kingdoms of Beejapoor, Ahmednugur, and Golcondah – Internal administration – The Mahrattas under these states frequently opposed to each other – The principal Mahratta families under Beejapoor and Ahmednugur – some account of each family – particularly that of Bhonslay – The Moghul invasions, for the purpose of subjugating the Deccan states, had great influence on the rise of the Mahrattas – State of the Deccan when the Emperor Akber projected its conquest – at his death, 1605, in possession of a part of the territory of Nizam Shah – Mullik Umber – his regency – Lookhjee Jadow Rao – Death of Mullik Umber, and of Ibrahim Adil Shah – Shahjee Bhonslay – Mahrattas fast rising into consequence – Accession of Mohummud Adil Shah – Futih Khan succeeds his father – Mullik Umber, is confined by Mortiza Nizam Shah – Murder of Lookhjee Jadow Rao – Death of the Emperor Jehangeer, and accession of his son, Shah Jehan – Khan Jehan Lodi, his rebellion and death – Shahjee Bhonslay enters the Moghul service – Alliance betwixt Mortiza Nizam Shah and the king of Beejapoor – Army of Beejapoor defeated by the Moghuls – Futih Khan murders Mortiza Nizam Shah, – negociates with the Emperor – obtains some districts previously promised to Shahjee – Shahjee in disgust joins the army of Beejapoor – Futih Khan treacherously breaks with the Moghuls – Siege and surrender of Doulutabad – Moghuls repulsed before Purinda, and compelled to retreat to Burhanpoor – Shahjee’s regency – Shah Jehan’s policy – War with Beejapoor – peace concluded – terms – Shahjee maintains a desultory warfare – is at last compelled to yield, and enter the service of Beejapoor – End of the Byheree dynasty

Chapter 3 – From 1637 to 1648

Shahjee’s progress after entering the service of Beejapoor – marries a second wife – Two sons by his first wife, Sumbhajee and Sivajee; and one son by his second wife, Venkajee – Shahjee departs for the Carnatic, and sends his first wife and his son Sivajee to reside on his Jagheer at Poona, under the care of Dadajee Konedeo – Political views of the Courts of Beejapoor and Golcondah – The Moghuls introduce a new revenue system, and the Fusslee era into the Deccan – Revenue system of Dadajee Konedeo – The Mawuls – improvement of the condition of their inhabitants – Sivajee’s education – disposition, and early pursuits – His three first adherents – obtains possession of the fort of Torna – manner of justifying the proceeding – builds Rajgurh – Dada-jee Konedeo’s death – The Killidars of Chakun and Kondaneh gained over by Sivajee – makes himself master of Sopa, and the fortress of Poorundhur

Chapter 4 – From 1648 to 1657

Local authorities under the Beejapoor government, in the immediate neighbourhood of Sivajee – The Sawunts of Waree – The Seedee of Jinjeera – A daring robbery – Forts taken by surprise – The province of Kallian reduced – Shahjee seized – Sivajee applies to Shah Jehan for his enlargement – An attempt to seize Sivajee frustrated – Shahjee released, – returns to the Carnatic – his eldest son Sumbhajee killed – Progress of Sivajee – Murder of the Raja of Jowlee, and conquest of his country – Rohira escaladed – Pertabgurh built – Shamraje Punt the first Mahratta Peishwa – Sivajee’s views on the Moghul districts – History of the Moghuls in the Deccan since 1636 – Meer Joomleh – Moghuls attack Golcondah, – make war on Beejapoor – Shah Jehan’s illness, – his four sons, – all aspire to the crown – Aurungzebe’s character and progress – usurps the throne

Chapter 5 – From 1657 to 1662

Sivajee enters into a correspondence with Aurungzebe – commits hostilities on the Moghuls, by plundering Joonere and Ahmednugur – augments his cavalry – Political artifice of Sivajee and of Aurungzebe – Sivajee entertains a body of Patens – Factions at Beejapoor – Khan Mohummud the prime minister put to death – Shamraje Punt defeated by the Seedee – Moro Trimmul Pingley appointed Peishwa – Treaty with the Sawunts, – which they break – Expedition against Sivajee – Afzool Khan, the Beejapoor general, seduced to a conference and murdered – Sivajee gets possession of Panalla – defeats Roostum Zuman – plunders to the gates of Beejapoor – levies a contribution from Rajapoor – takes Dabul – Another expedition against him under Seedee Johur – besieged in Panalla – escapes from the fort – gallant conduct of his rear guard – heroic death of Bajee Purvoe – Ali Adil Shah takes the field – reduces the country lately over-run by Sivajee – and retakes Panalla – Sivajee takes Rajapoor – conquers Sringarpoor – and reduces Dhunda Rajepoor – kills Ghorepuray, and burns Moodhole – Conquest of Waree – Truce with Beejapoor – Shahjee visits Sivajee – Raighur – Sivajee’s territory and army – The Moghuls

Chapter 6 – From 1662 to 1667

Sivajee attacks the Moghul possessions – Shaisteh Khan is sent against him, – occupies Poona, besieges and takes Chakun – Raja Jeswunt Sing, of Joudpoor, sent to reinforce Shaisteh Khan – Netajee Palkur is surprised and wounded, but escapes – Sivajee performs an adventurous exploit – Shaisteh Khan is recalled – Sultan Mauzum is appointed to the Deccan, with Jeswunt Sing, as second in command – Sivajee plunders Surat – Death of Shahjee – Sivajee assumes the title of Raja, and strikes coins in his own name, – his fleet makes prize of some Moghul ships bound to the Red Sea, and plunders the pilgrims proceeding to Mecca – plunders Ahmednugur – makes a descent on the coast, and plunders Barcelore – Raja Jey sing, and Dilere Khan come against him unexpectedly – Aurungzebe’s views and policy in regard to the Deccan – Progress of Jey Sing – Sivajee in alarm and perplexity – Siege and defence of Poorundhur – Sivajee’s submission – Remarkable convention of Poorundhur – War with Beejapoor Sivajee and Venkajee opposed to each other – Sivajee repairs to Delhi, – is placed in confinement by Aurungzebe, – effects his escape, and returns to the Deccan – Jey Sing’s progress, – is obliged to raise the siege of Beejapoor, and retreat, – is superseded by Sultan Mauzum, and dies on his return towards Delhi

Chapter 7 – From 1667 to 1669

Sultan Mauzum and Jeswunt Sing – their characters – Sivajee through them obtains various favours from the Emperor – The reported intention of Sultan Mauzum, to rebel against his father, doubted – Peace concluded between Beejapoor and the Moghuls – The states of Beejapoor and Golcondah agree to pay Sivajee an annual tribute – Unsuccessful attempts of Sivajee against Goa and Jinjeera – Rumours respecting Sivajee, whilst he is revising and improving his civil and military arrangements – his remarkable institutions the formation, discipline, and interior economy of his troops – his forts – financial and judicial regulations – chief offices and persons through whom his government was administered

Chapter 8 – From 1670 to 1676

The tranquillity of the Deccan is interrupted – Interesting and daring enterprise – Singurh escaladed, and Tannajee Maloosray slain – Several forts taken – Jinjeera on the point of being delivered up to Sivajee – prevented by a revolution – The Seedees enter the Moghul service – Sivajee plunders Surat is intercepted on his return – stratagem for saving his booty – Attacks the Moghul troops, and defeats them – Naval operations – Candeish plundered, and the Chouth imposed – Oundha, Putts, and Salheir taken – Causes of the inactivity of the Moghuls – Jeswunt Sing is relieved by Mohabet Khan – feeble operations against the forts – Salheir besieged – relieved – The Mahrattas obtain a great victory – Sivajee at war with the Portuguese – attempts to surprise a small fort on Salsette – English alarmed – press their long pending claims on Sivajee – Khan Jehan Buhadur appointed Viceroy of the Moghul possessions – his defensive system disapproved by Dilere Khan, who had been successful against Chakun – Sivajee visits Golcondah – his coast suffers by a descent from the fleets of Surat and Jinjeera – Death of Ali Adil Shah – Khowaus Khan appointed regent at Beejapoor – Sivajee retakes Panalla – plunders Hooblee – English apply to him for indemnification – Sivajee prosecutes the war against Beejapoor – conciliates the Moghul Viceroy – takes Purlee – Satara, and several forts in its neighbourhood – Pertab Rao attacks the Beejapoor army on its march – grants an armistice, which is disapproved by Sivajee Pertab Rao, without Sivajee’s permission, makes a distant excursion – Abdool Khureem, whilst Sivajee is engaged in the siege of Ponda, makes an effort to recover Panalla – Pertab Rao arrives – receives a message from Sivajee – attacks the Beejapoor army, and is defeated and killed – Victory snatched from the Mahomedans, by the valour and conduct of Hussajee Mohitey – Suntajee Ghorepuray and Dhunnajee Jadow are distinguished – Hussajee Mohitey appointed Senaputtee, with the title of Humbeer Rao – Death of Abajee Sonedeo – Siege of Ponda raised – Sivajee is enthroned, and assumes the titles and insignia of royalty – Treaty with the English – tribute from the Portuguese – Ounda and Putta retaken – Incursion of Humbeer Rao – Ponda taken – Murder of Khowaus Khan – Sivajee builds a line of forts from Tattora to Panalla – is confined by illness at Satara – projects a most important expedition

Chapter 9 – From 1676 to 1680

State of politics in the Deccan when Sivajee undertakes his expedition into the Carnatic – How suggested preliminary arrangements – Sivajee departs – Conference and alliance with Kootub Shah at Hyderabad – proceeds to the southward – extraordinary devotions – Progress of the conquests – Negotiations with Venkajee – Golcondah is invaded by the Moghuls, and the army of Beejapoor – they are repulsed – Death of Abdool Khureem – Musaood Khan, by the influence of Dilere Khan, appointed regent – Sivajee sets out on his return – takes Bellary, &c – Venkajee attacks Sivajee’s troops, and is defeated – A body of Mahrattas in the service of Beejapoor defeated by Sivajee’s troops – Successes of Jenardin Punt, who by the aid of Humbeer Rao reduces the Dooab – Proceedings of Moro Punt – Sultan Mauzum returns to Aurungabad as viceroy – Dilere Khan again ordered against Beejapoor – Musaood Khan calls in the aid of Sivajee, who commits dreadful devastation in the Moghul provinces – plunders Jaulna – is attacked, and in danger of being worsted, when he retrieves the day by his personal exertions – is subsequently saved from great danger by one of his guides – Twenty-seven forts taken – Musaood Khan earnestly solicits further assistance – Sumbhajee deserts to the Moghuls – Dilere Khan’s proposals – Emperor’s objections – Sumbhajee returns to his father – Dilere Khan raises the siege of Beejapoor crosses the Kistna, with a body of horse, and is attacked and defeated by Jenardin Punt Sivajee’s claims in consequence of the assistance afforded to Beejapoor – Supremacy of Tanjore, &c transferred to Sivajee – Venkajee’s independence affected by this arrangement – his behaviour in consequence – Sivajee’s excellent advice – Sivajee’s death and character – possessions and treasures – The ministers influenced by Soyera Bye, propose setting Sumbhajee aside, and appointing Raja Ram to the succession – Sumbhajee discovers the plot – takes command of Panalla – displays considerable energy – seizes Jenardin Punt – Moro Punt and Humbeer Rao join Sumbhajee – The garrison of Raigurh and the army declare for him

Chapter 10 – From 1680 to 1689

Cruelties exercised by Sumbhajee on assuming power – execution of Soyera Bye – Inauspicious commencement of his reign – Unavailing attempts to drive the Seedee from the island of Kenery – Sultan Mohummud Akber seeks an asylum in Sumbhajee’s territory – Plot in favour of Raja Ram – Executions – Execution of Annajee Dutto – Moro Punt imprisoned – Rugonath Narrain Hunwuntay – his spirited remonstrances, and their consequences – Sumbhajee attacks Jinjeera Moghuls make an incursion into the Concan, and are compelled to retreat – Assault on Jinjeera repulsed – siege raised – Sumbhajee attacks the Portuguese – endeavours to conciliate the English – Portuguese besiege Ponda, and are compelled to retreat with heavy loss – Kuloosha the prime minister of Sumbhajee – Decay in the institutions of Sivajee – State of the army – lands over assessed – Approach of Aurungzebe – Survey of the state of the Deccan, from the first year after Sumbhajee’s accession, up to the fall of Beejapoor and Golcondah – Extraordinary revolution amongst the English at Bombay – Aurungzebe’s operations – Salheir is surrendered – Sultan Mauzum is sent to attack Sumbhajee in the Concan – Imposition of the Jizeea – reflections – Death of Dilere Khan – Aurungzebe arrives at Ahmednugur – description of his camp – Operations of Sultan Mauzum Humbeer Rao and Khan Jehan – Distress of Sultan Mauzum’s army – returns extremely reduced – operations – Mahrattas plunder Baroach, and proclaim Mohummud Akber emperor – Operations against Beejapoor and Golcondah – Murder of Mahdhuna Punt – Truce, with Golconda – Siege and capture of Beejapoor – description of the present state of its ruins – Fall of Golcondah – Arrangements in the conquered districts – Mode in which the Moghuls took possession of, and regulated a district – Operations of the Mahrattas – Humbeer Rao defeats Shirzee Khan, but falls in the battle – Operations in the Carnatic – Profligacy and imbecility of Sumbhajee – Sultan Mohummud Akber quits him in disgust – Remarkable consequences of the laxity of discipline in Sumbhajee’s army – State of the Hindoo population in Maharashtra – Impolicy of Aurungzebe – Remarks on the state of the country, extending, by anticipation, to a period of twelve years after the subversion of the Deccan kingdoms – Operations of the emperor – Piracies of the English – Sumbhajee surprised and made prisoner, together with his minister – behaviour – execution – Summary of his character

Chapter 11 – From 1689 to 1707

Raja Ram – Meeting of the principal Mahratta leaders at Raigurh – Raja Ram declared regent, during the minority of Sumbhajee’s son – Important consultations, in which Prillhad Neerajee takes a conspicuous part – Siege and capture of Raigurh – The son and widow of Sumbhajee taken – Merich and Panalla taken – Raja Ram flees to Ginjee – narrowly escapes, being intercepted – establishes the form of the Court of Sivajee – creates the rank of Pritee Needhee – Suntajee Ghorepuray and Dhunnajee Jadow sent back to Maharashtra – Raja Ram ascends the throne – Zoolfikar Khan sent against Ginjee – Siege delayed – Aspect of affairs in the Deccan – Proceedings of Ramchundur Punt – Origin of Ghos-dana – Rajgurh and Panalla retaken – Proceedings of Suntajee and Dhunnajee – and of Aurungzebe – Ginjee invested – Supercession of Zoolfikar Khan, by the arrival of Kaum Bukhsh – Jealousies to which it gives rise – Aurungzebe fixes his principal cantonment at Brimhapoor – Portuguese and English – Suntajee and Dhunnajee repair to the Carnatic – attack the Moghuls with great success – a truce – dissolved by the Emperor – Siege of Ginjee renewed – Kassim Khan, with several other officers, compelled by Suntajee to surrender, together with their troops Himmut Khan defeated and slain – Siege of Ginjee pressed – Raja Ram is permitted to escape – Ginjee taken – Dissensions amongst the Mahrattas, which increase in consequence of the death of the Pritee Needhee – A sedition obliges Suntajee Ghorepuray to flee from his own troops – Satara becomes the seat of the Mahratta government – Changes and promotions – Kanhojee Angria, on the death of Seedojee Goojur, succeeds to the command of the fleet – Suntajee Ghorepuray basely murdered by Nagojee Manay – Raja Ram takes the field with a very large army – plunders the country, and imposes the Chouth in Candeish, Gung-thuree, and Berar, leaving officers to collect it – Zoolfikar Khan recalled from the Carnatic – New plan of operations – a pursuing and a besieging force – Zoolfikar Khan attacks and pursues Raja Rain – Emperor takes Wussuntgurh – invests Satara – description of its defences – its siege and surrender – Capture of Purlee – Distress of the Moghul army, in consequence of the setting in of the monsoon – Death and character of Raja Ram – his widow Tara Bye assumes the regency – Pureshram Trimbuck appointed Pritee Needhee – Mahrattas under Dhunnajee Jadow, and minor chiefs – Description of a body of Mahratta plunderers, contrasted with the splendour of a Moghul camp – great devastations – State of the Moghuls – Aurungzebe perseveres in his plan of reducing the forts – General devastation and confusion – Weakness of the Moghuls – Power of the Mahrattas – its nature – State of feeling in the country – Moghuls make overtures for an accommodation – broken off – Aurungzebe quits the neighbourhood of Poona, and moves to the eastward – Wakinkerah besieged, and finally reduced – Mahrattas retaking their forts – they attack the grand army on its march Emperor in danger of being taken – Death and character of Aurungzebe

Chapter 12 – From 1707 to 1720

Shao – origin of the name – he is released – Tara Bye declares him an impostor, and disputes his pretensions – Origin of the Rajas of Akulkote – Shao obtains possession of Satara – ascends the throne – Origin of the celebrated Ballajee Wishwanath – Proceedings of the Moghuls – Shao’s progress – War with Tara Bye – Agreement with Daood Khan – Death of Dhunnajee Jadow – Tara Bye recovers Panalla, and establishes her court at Kolapoor – Death of Sivajee – Accession of Sumbhajee, and confinement of Tara Bye – Advantages secured to Shao by the death of the Punt Suchew – Dissolution of the agreement with the Moghuls – Mahrattas under Chunder Seyn Jadow proceed to collect their dues – A trifling dispute between Chunder Seyn Jadow and Ballajee Wishwanath, leads to important consequences – Ballajee is protected by Shao – Jadow retires to Kolapoor, and afterwards joins the Moghuls – Origin of Nizam Ool Moolk – is appointed viceroy of the Deccan – War with the Moghuls – After a battle, the Mahrattas retreat to the Salpee Ghaut – accommodation – Disturbances – A daring robbery, supposed to be committed by Khundee Rao Dhabaray – who establishes himself near Rajpeeplee – Nizam Ool Moolk favours the Kolapoor party – Seedojee Ghorepuray declares for Sumbhajee, and is made Senaputtee at Kolapoor – obtains possession of Son-door – Great confusion and anarchy – Ballajee Wishwanath is treacherously made prisoner by Dummajee Thorat – and ransomed – Success of Ballajee Wishwanath against Kishen Rao Kuttaokur – Defeat of Byhroo Punt Pingley Peishwa, by Kanhojee Angria – Alarming progress of Angria – Ballajee Wishwanath effects a favourable arrangement with him, and is made Peishwa – obtains possession of Poorundhur for himself – reduces Thorat – establishes order in the Poona district – Improvement in the aspect of Mahratta affairs – allusion to the extraordinary expansion of their power, from about this period – and to the Bramin scheme for creating union amongst the Mahratta chiefs – Character of Shao – The Emperor Ferokhsere conciliates the Mahrattas – Hoosein Ally Khan appointed viceroy of the Deccan – is opposed by Daood Khan, who is killed – Zoolfikar Beg defeated by Khundee Rao Dhabaray – Battle near Ahmednugur – Dhabaray is made Senaputtee – Ferokhsere encourages the Mahrattas to resist the viceroy – the latter negociates with the Mahrattas – concludes a treaty with Shao – marches, supported by a large body of Mahrattas, to Delhi – Ferokhsere deposed, and Mohummud Shah raised to the imperial dignity – The famous grants for the Chouth, Surdeshmookhee, and Swuraje, delivered to Ballajee Wishwanath – who, accompanied by Khundee Rao Dhabaray returns to Satara – Scheme of the arbitrary division of Mahratta revenue – explained – distributed – Officers appointed to the general superintendence of particular parts of the country – Kanhojee Angria – Mahratta chiefs have assignments of revenue within the districts of each other – Eager desire of all to possess, and to maintain hereditary rights in their native villages

Chapter 13 – From 1720 to 1726

Transcriber note: There appears to be a composition error in the original document. There is no Chapter XIII, but there are two instances of Chapter XV. This chapter was designated as Chapter XIV, but will be published here as Chapter XIII. This seems to be a safe edit, as the dates appear to be contiguous and the chronology appears to be correct.

Nizam Ool Moolk, throwing off his dependance on the Syuds, determines on possessing himself of the resources of the Deccan – defeats Dilawur Khan, who falls in the contest – Battle of Balapoor – the deputy viceroy Alum Ally Khan slain – conduct of the Mahrattas on the occasion – Hoossein Ally Khan, accompanied by the emperor, sets out from Delhi to quell the rebellion of Nizam Ool Moolk, but is assassinated – Battle of Shahpoor – Syud Abdoollah Khan defeated and made prisoner – Rejoicings at Delhi – promotions – congratulations – Conduct of the new administration – important changes at the Mahratta court – Deaths of Pureshram Trimbuck, Ballajee Wishwanath and Khundee Rao Dhabaray – elevation of Sreeput Rao and of Bajee Rao – Death of Dummajee Gaekwar, ancestor of the reigning family at Baroda – Negotiations with Nizam Ool Moolk – his views and policy – is appointed vizier of the empire, and proceeds to Delhi – Courtiers conspire against him – Hyder Koolee Khan, governor of Guzerat, incited to rebellion quelled by Nizam Ool Moolk, who appoints his uncle Hamed Khan, governor at Ahmedabad, and returns to Delhi – is appointed Wukeel-i-Mootluq – withdraws from court, and returns towards the Deccan – Proceedings of Bajee Rao – Origin of Holkar and Sindia – Proceedings of Oodajee Powar – Character of Bajee Rao – views directed towards Malwa – opposed by Sreeput Rao – discussions – Commanding eloquence of Bajee Rao – Nizam Ool Moolk, on his return to the Deccan, is opposed by Mubariz Khan – Battle of Shukurkhera – Appointment of Raja Geerdhur Buhadur as governor of Malwa, and of Sur Boo-fund Khan as governor of Guzerat – the deputy of the latter is defeated by the uncle of Nizam Ool Moolk, assisted by Kantajee Kudum Bhanday – Roostum Ally, governor of Surat, betrayed by Peelajee Gaekwar – is also defeated – Hamed Khan grants the Chouth to Kantajee and Peelajee – they quarrel in collecting it – on which the Chouth of Guzerat, west of the Myhie, is assigned to Kantajee, and that of the country east of it to Peelajee – Sur Boolund Khan marches for Ahmedabad – Battle at the Shah-i-bagh – distracted state of Guzerat – Bajee Rao’s incursions into Malwa – Notice of an expedition to the Carnatic

Chapter 14 – From 1727 to 1734

Transcriber note: This chapter was designated as the first of two instances of Chapter XV, and will be published here as Chapter XIV.

Plans of Nizam Ool Moolk for consolidating his own power, and of creating dissensions among the Mahrattas – Negotiates with Shao, through the Pritee Needhee, and obtains the relinquishment of the Chouth, in the neighbourhood of Hyderabad – The agreement disapproved of by the Peishwa – Nizam Ool Moolk prosecutes his plans, by endeavouring to revive the feud between Shao and Sumbhajee – frustrated by the Peishwa – war – Able conduct of Bajee Rao – forces Nizam Ool Moolk into terms – Negotiations with Sur Boolund Khan – Bajee Rao obtains grants of the Chouth and Surdeshmookhee for Guzerat – Proceedings of Sumbhajee, Raja of Kolapoor – he is defeated by the Pritee Needhee – Treaty between the Mahrattas of Satara and Kolapoor – War between the Peishwa and the Senaputtee – Battle of Dhuboy – Bajee Rao victorious, and Dhabaray slain – Nizam Ool Moolk diverts the Peishwa’s attack from his own, to the imperial territories – Agreement between the Peishwa and the Senaputtee relative to Guzerat – Abhee Sing, Raja of Joudpoor, appointed to supersede Sur Boolund Khan – Policy of Nizam Ool Moolk – Bajee Rao proceeds to Malwa – War in Guzerat, between Peelajee Gaekwar and Abhee Sing – the latter sends emissaries on pretence of negotiating – Peelajee is assassinated – The Peishwa is called to the assistance of the Raja Chitoor Sal, in Bundelcund – forces Mohummud Khan Bungush into a fort – Bundelcund evacuated by the Moghuls – Territory granted to Bajee Rao as a reward – Raja Jey Sing appointed governor of Malwa – concludes an agreement with Bajee Rao, and concedes the government to him

Chapter 15 – From 1734 to 1739

Transcriber note: This chapter was designated as the second of two instances of Chapter XV, and will continue to be published here as Chapter XV.

Mahratta affairs – Rughoojee Bhonslay is appointed Sena Sahib Soobeh – Affairs of the Concan – of Sawunt – Angria – Unsuccessful campaigns of the Pritee Needhee against the Seedee – Revolution at Jinjeera Peishwa returns from Malwa – proceedings – Arrangements made in the Concan – Mulharjee Holkar’s incursions – policy of the vizier Khan Dowran – Nizam Ool Moolk courted by the Emperor – Muzuffir Khan marches against the Mahrattas – Holkar’s conduct towards him – Holkar continues levying contributions – makes an incursion into Guzerat – Momin Khan appointed governor of that province Bajee Rao’s pecuniary embarrassments – Negotiations with the imperial court – obtains an assignment on Malwa, and a tribute from the Rajpoots – further negotiations – obtains the Surdeshpandeegeeree of the Deccan – Nizam Ool Moolk resolves on assisting the Emperor against the Mahrattas – Preparations of the Moghuls – and of Bajee Rao Sadut Khan drives the Mahrattas across the Jumna – Bajee Rao appears at the gates of Delhi – operations – retires – returns to the Deccan – Circumstances regarding Angria, which led to a war with the Portuguese, and the invasion of Salsette – The Peishwa is called off to Malwa, to oppose Nizam Ool Moolk – who, joined by the imperial army advances from Delhi – Bajee Rao surrounds Nizam Ool Moolk at Bhopaul – forces him into terms – their nature – Prosecution of hostilities against the Portuguese – conduct of the English – its causes – progress of the Mahrattas – War between the Peishwa and Rughoojee Bhonslay – Disastrous intelligence from Delhi, occasioned by the arrival and proceedings of Nadir Shah – Chimnajee Appa prosecutes a successful war against the Portuguese – Memorable siege of Bassein – Nadir Shah retires from Delhi

Chapter 16 – From 1739 to 1740

The government of Malwa not formally conceded to Bajee Rao as promised by Nizam Ool Moolk – The Peishwa’s arrangements in Malwa and Bundelcund, previous to attempting the conquest of the Deccan – Motives which deterred and prompted the Peishwa – Rughoojee Bhonslay is induced to undertake an expedition into the Carnatic – The Peishwa attacks Nasir Jung – plans frustrated at the outset – departs for Hindoostan – Chimnajee Appa recalled into the Concan to support Ballajee Bajee Rao – Operations against Sumbhajee Angria – interrupted by intelligence of the death of Bajee Rao – Brief retrospect of the rise and progress of the Mahrattas – state of the Moghul empire, and of the powers in India – Imperial court – Nabob of Oude Rajpoots – Origin of the Jhats – of Aliverdy Khan – of the Rohillas – State of the Deccan and Carnatic – Nabobs of Arcot – Kurnoul – Kurpa – and Savanoor – Tanjore – English – French and Portuguese – Raja of Soonda – Dessaye of Carwar – Mysore – Artificial revenue system of the Mahrattas – Remarks on – Character of Bajee Rao – His sons Ballajee Bajee Rao – Rugonath Rao – Jenardin Bawa, and Shumsher Buhadur

This collection transcribed by Chris Gage
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