your story- a tutorial
directory of resources for people having trauma and mental issues
company makes systems which help communicate with a combination of sounds
cards for communication via images
cards are for children with autism but the idea is that communication
via images is better for those with trauma issues. The Flash! Pro2 CD-ROM
has a huge collection of over 10,000 color photographic images in 65
categories (click above on "Samples") that you can preview
and print to teach speech, language and communication to children of
Sidran Institute - Catalog by Subject
and rape victims
M. (2004). Using both sides of the brain: Experiences that integrate
art and talk therapy through scribble drawings. Art Therapy. 21(3),
2004. pp. 136-142. link
researchers identify a cerebral cortex with two functioning hemispheres:
a left hemisphere associated with language and speech and a right hemisphere
associated with visual-motor activities. Additionally, neuroscientists
argue that contemporary lifestyles favor the verbal, logical left brain
and often ignore the truths that present in the right brain. Psychotherapy
techniques range in their use of left-brain verbal discourse and right-brain
nonverbal discourse. In a case study, the author describes experiences
integrating both verbal and nonverbal therapy with a client with severe
anxiety and depression. Nonverbal therapy involved annotated scribble
drawings. Images in the drawings became the stimuli for verbal discourse
with the client. Other client responses to the annotated scribble drawings
Rachel (1998). Use of drawing technique to encourage verbalization in
adult survivor of sexual abuse. ; Arts in Psychotherapy. 25(4), 1998.
pp. 257-262. link
the effectiveness of drawings (art therapy) in encouraging an adult
survivor of childhood sexual abuse to speak about the past traumatic
experiences. This ability to speak up not only breaks the conspiracy
of family members to keep the secret, but also enables the victim to
deal with negative feelings toward himself/herself and his/her parents.
The drawing technique is illustrated in 4 therapeutic sessions (out
of 24) with an adult female who was sexually abused by her father in
Holistic Assessment of rape victims. By: Mayer, Rick A.; Ottens, Allen
J.. Guidance & Counseling, Mar94, Vol. 9 Issue 4, p24, 4p
describes a method for the holistic assessment of rape victims. This
method consists of assessing the effect the rape has on the victims'affective,
cognitive and behavioural functioning. By assessing the severity of
the trauma in these areas counsellors are able to develop appropriate
"The TAF permits counsellors to assess clients' level of impairment
with respect to affective, cognitive and behavioural reactions to a
crisis. Space is provided on the TAF for counsellors to make notation
of any significant clinical findings. Affective categories are: (a)
anger/hostility (may be present as agitation or a desire for possible
retaliation); (b) fear/anxiety (may be present as sense of disorientation
or jittery tension); and (c) sadness/melancholy (may be present as emotional
and/or physical exhaustion accompanied by a sense of hopelessness).
Counsellors are asked to identify clients' affective reaction to the
crisis event using these categories and also assess the level of impairment.
Should more than one affect be present, counsellors must judge which
affect is primary, secondary and tertiary."
in healing survivors of war: The use of art therapy in treating trauma
survivors. Baker, Barbara Ann; Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment &
Trauma, Vol 12(1-2), 2006. pp. 183-198.
clinics can use creative art therapies as a means of reaching out to
war refugees in their communities who may not respond to traditional
talk therapy. In this case, the use of quilting and other artwork was
utilized by the staff at Chicago Health Outreach to assist displaced
Bosnians to cope with their war-related trauma and integration into
their new environment in the United States. It can be difficult to reach
refugee populations within a community whose culture and language are
different from the majority, but finding other means of communicating
can make a real difference for these individuals as they find safety
and understanding by working on and sharing special creative projects.
(2004). Visual Presentations That Prompt, Flash &Transform. Media
& Methods, 40 (6), p4-4.
suggests ways to conduct classroom sessions using projectors. Flashcards
remain a stable way to help students retain information. Instead of
spending hours laminating paper flash cards, create a digital template.
A projector is used to show the flash slides for specific areas of study.
Teach students word processing commands like cut, paste and move in
a fun way by projecting scrambled jokes. Use the move command in the
word processor to show students how the word processor tools work. By
projecting this process, a large class can see how simple the transfer
of information can be. This kind of text sequencing can be used to reorder
not just jokes, but also event timelines, size of numbers or objects,
and other selections. Have a full-screen photographic image projected
in your classroom when students walk into class. Then have them write
their interpretations of the projected image. By using these readily
you can create compelling curriculum and reach those learners who have
failed to learn from text-only media. Images are more than illustration.
They are the heart of comprehension and the fastest route to academic
art: The integration of art therapy into the modern psychoanalytic approach.
Sharon, Ruth Velikorsky; Dissertation Abstracts International: Section
B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 65(7-B), 2005. pp. 3724.
In this study
I want to illustrate how the production of drawings and written associations
of a patient in the psychoanalytic framework can be a springboard for
progressive verbalization and communication. It is helpful because it
can facilitate the expression of pre-verbal and non-verbal material.
Experiences of the patient, before the age of language acquisition,
fall into this category. I will do this using a case study approach,
by presenting the case of Rachel, a preoedipal patient whom I treated
through the use of art in the psychoanalytic framework. Her case will
be presented, and the repetitive material which signalled the presence
of the resistance and the unconscious material in her art work and written
associations to it will be summarized and explored. I will discuss the
presence of the transference, countertransference, and resistance in
our therapeutic relationship-as present in her work, her actions, and
her behavior as treatment progressed. My purpose in doing that is to
explore the ways in which the use of art effected those elements. I
also hope to open this field for more research in this area.
A descriptive study: Selection and use of art mediums by sexually abused
adults: Implications in counseling and art psychotherapy. Clukey, Frances
Harlow; Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences
and Engineering, Vol 64(4-B), 2003. pp. 1679.
was designed to explore what happens in the process of therapy when
clients, having persisting symptoms of sexual abuse and having disclosed
that abuse, have access to a wide variety of art materials to select
and use in treatment. A blend of qualitative and quantitative research
in design, the study is an initial step towards a greater understanding
of the potentially transformative experience of art making and the role
of art mediums in the practice of therapy. Treatment for abuse is a
long, complex and arduous process. Persistent aspects of abusive experience
remain deeply buried within the body and cause periodic, cyclical, somatic
and psychological problems in an individual's life. Clients often feel
words are too immediate and too explicit to describe the experience
and the resulting emotional response generated by sexual abuse. Created
within the context of what psychiatrist Winnicott (1971) described as
the "good enough" therapeutic relationship, artwork may be
viewed as more concrete and symbolic, or less immediately explicit and
therefore safer than verbal communications. Sensory-based therapies
such as art therapy are, therefore, particularly useful in accessing
traumatic memories and transforming the experience to a less damaging
state. For this study, the author set up private practice to work as
therapist with eight individuals for eight fifty-five minute sessions
in a traditional art therapy studio. Each session was documented on
videotape. Artwork was photographed. Videotapes, artwork, intake histories
and the researcher/therapist's notes were analyzed. Brief case studies
were developed. Data were considered by frequencies and ordinal comparisons
for immerging patterns. The data described art mediums as accessing
cognitive, symbolic, emotional, perceptual, kinesthetic and sensory
levels of understanding. A spiral model facilitated understanding the
process. The potential to pace the process of therapy by direction and
selection of more or less mediated, fluid and controllable art mediums
was shown to exist. Through the spatial and kinesthetic processes of
art making in art therapy, the individual controls recollection, comprehension,
integration and resolution of trauma. Art mediums are central in art
therapy as they safely provide the means of expression and reflection
to transform trauma in the bodymind.
Three art assessments: The Silver Drawing Test of cognition and emotion;
draw a story: Screening for depression; and stimulus drawings and techniques.
Silver, Rawley; New York, NY, US: Brunner-Routledge, 2002. xxiv, 315
(from the jacket)
Art can be an invaluable means of communication. It can bypass language
and hearing impairment and become a means of communicating thoughts
or feelings too difficult to express with words. This book uses three
original art assessments that use stimulus drawings to elicit response
drawings that provide access to a patient's emotions and attitudes toward
themselves and others while testing for the ability to solve problems
and convey ideas. Each assessment includes studies of reliability, validity,
and normative data, drawing on international research in the field and
on the author's own body of work spanning more than forty years. Stimulus
drawings are provided as well as drawing from imagination tasks, and
rating scales to assess emotional and cognitive content.
Arts as language:
Access to thoughts and feelings through stimulus drawings. Silver, Rawley;
New York, NY, US: Brunner-Routledge, 2001. xix, 187 pp.
from the cover)
Discusses the use of the visual medium as a linguistic parallel to verbal
or written communication. While recognizing that language expands and
facilitates thought, the author illustrates the existence of high-level
thinking in its absence and demonstrates the usefulness of drawing as
an expressional tool for patients who are unable, or unwilling, to express
themselves through the conventional use of language. Covering areas
such as cognition, creativity, and emotion, this book provides the reader
with an introduction to and explanation of stimulus drawing assessment.
In this approach, drawings serve as the principal channel for the exchange
of ideas. Stimulus drawings are provided to the patient to evoke a response
drawing. These response drawings allow patients to sketch their fantasies,
thus allowing some sort of gratification. The drawings may also serve
as a means of acceptably expressing feelings the patient deems inappropriate,
such as fear or anger. Reviews of qualitative and quantitative studies
follow the introduction. By reviewing studies of children, adolescents,
and adults suffering form various impairments and injuries, the author
shows the broad applicability of stimulus drawing assessments.
by clients with DID: Clinical observations based on two theoretical
models. Cox, Carol Thayer; Cohen, Barry M.; Art Therapy, Vol 17(3),
2000. pp. 195-201.
have explored the compositional patterns and thematic imagery in mandala
drawings by a large group of patients diagnosed with multiple personality/dissociative
identity disorder (MPD/DID). In approaching this work, they used both
the Ten Category Model (G. M. Cohen & C. T. Cox, 1995) and the Great
Round of Mandala theory (J. Kellogg, 1978, 1997) looking for parallels
between the two systems of analysis to help therapists better understand
the nonverbal communications of their clients. Although not a formal
research study, the observations based on the synthesis of these two
unrelated models are nonetheless consistent with the assessment and
treatment literature on DID.
Art psychotherapy groups: Between pictures and words. Skaife, Sally;
Huet, Val; Florence, KY, US: Taylor & Frances/Routledge, 1998. x,
(from the cover)
Presenting an account of the challenges encountered in art psychotherapy
practice, this book explores new theoretical material arising from the
merging of art and group psychotherapy. The contributors present in-depth
discussion of case studies with client groups such as children, forensic
patients, patients on acute psychiatric wards, the cognitively impaired
elderly, institutionalized patients moving into the community, and drug
and alcohol abusers. A common theme which emerges from the book is that
the physical use of art materials and the space of the art room offer
a possibility for communication of feelings which is not possible in
purely verbal groups. This allows clients with severe mental health
problems, and groups who would not normally be considered for purely
verbal group therapy, to benefit from a psychodynamic group process.
The book is intended to be a resource for practising and trainee art
therapists, and all professionals working psychodynamically with clients
who have severe mental health problems.
Therapeutic presence: Bridging expression and form. Robbins, Arthur;
Philadelphia, PA, US: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, Ltd., 1998. 280 pp.
(from the cover)
In the therapeutic workplace, the interaction between patient and therapist
is built upon cognitive, affective and expressive experiences. The contributors
to this book explore this interaction, examining the concept of therapeutic
presence, and the therapist's ability to maintain it. The theory integrates
a creative framework that synthesizes traditional and non-traditional
approaches to treatment, and will be of use to all mental health professionals.
The author suggests that, since therapeutic presence calls for an openness
and awareness of the intersubjective space between therapist and patient,
therapists who become receptive to the subtle cues of sensory perceptual
communication, as well as to the playful mirroring and meditative interaction,
will achieve more successful and meaningful interactions with patients.
Therapeutic presence requires a sensitivity to the temporal characteristics
of the therapeutic frame, and an experience of energy that may open,
shut down, or disrupt the field of therapeutic contact.
This stance can be applied to therapeutic modalities ranging from psychoanalysis
to creative arts therapy, in work with both short term and long term
populations. The author suggests that the full use of the therapist's
creative energies may provide the only solution to overwhelming therapeutic
A., (2005) Hysteria and the Mind-Brain Connection. Psychiatric Times,
52 (13), 41-42.
The article focuses on the development of theories on conversion disorder.
The drawback of the theory that nonverbal memory content could be processed
into a verbal form is that it relates consciousness to the left brain
function. The derealization and depersonalization in posttraumatic stress
disorder is caused by the failure of left hemisphere to function during
states of extreme arousal. According to Pierre Janet, hysteria is a
deficit of selective attention or undoubling of personality.
Park, Hye-Suk (2005). Multiple exemplar instruction and transformation
of stimulus function from auditory-visual matching to visual-visual
matching. ; Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities
and Social Sciences, Vol 66(5-A). pp. 1715.
The present study examined (1) whether MEI was needed for children with
developmental disabilities to acquire bidirectionality across listener
responses and speaker responses as naming; (2) whether naming was prerequisite
for reading comprehension; and (3) whether there was an effect of MEI
on rudimentary reading comprehension. Four children with developmental
disabilities with a range of 2 to 4 years in age participated in Experiment
I, and four four-year old children with developmental disabilities participated
in Experiment II. A multiple baseline design across participants with
multiple probes within participants was implemented in a time lagged
fashion. Three sets of four items were presented as stimuli in flash
cards. The participants received instruction either on listener responses
or speaker responses with a set of stimuli, and received probes for
untaught speaker responses or listener responses as emergent naming,
and for untaught reading comprehension in form of matching symbols to
the corresponding written words. Responses (listener or speaker) the
participants received instruction on during the pre-intervention phases
were counterbalanced across the participants in Experiment I and Experiment
II. Sets of stimuli were counterbalanced in Experiment II. The participants
who received speaker instruction showed untaught listener responses
as naming but did not emit untaught reading comprehension with the presence
of naming in their repertoires in Experiment I and Experiment II. The
participants who received listener instruction did not show clear emergence
of untaught speaker responses, and received remedial naming instruction
followed by probes for reading comprehension in Experiment I and Experiment
II. These participants also did not show untaught reading comprehension
during the post-naming probes. MEI on naming and reading comprehension
was delivered with another set. All the participants emitted untaught
reading comprehension during probes that were conducted after MEI with
the original set of the stimuli. Instruction either on listener or speaker
responses was delivered with a new set of stimuli counterbalanced in
responses they received instruction on within the participants in order
to test whether they emitted untaught naming and reading comprehension
with the new set of stimuli. All of the participants showed untaught
naming and reading comprehension with the new set of stimuli. The results
were discussed in terms of equivalence class, naming, and relational
frame theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)
LR. Aphasia, alexia, and oral reading. [Review] [79 refs] [Journal Article.
Review] Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation. 11(1):22-36, 2004.
Alexia is an
acquired disturbance in reading. Alexias that occur after left hemisphere
damage typically result from linguistic deficits and may occur as isolated
symptoms or as part of an aphasia syndrome. This article presents an
overview of the classification of the alexias, including both the traditional
neuroanatomical perspective and the more recent psycholinguistic approach.
Then, assessment procedures are reviewed, followed by a summary of treatment
approaches for alexia. Finally, two case studies illustrate how oral
reading of connected language (sentences and paragraphs rather than
single words) has been used as a technique for treating alexia in patients
with aphasia. [References: 79]
Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of
mental disorders, fourth edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric
to research this subject:
the NCJRS Abstracts Database
scholar or Findarticles
books at the library
Libraries on sexual assault
terms: *Art Therapy; *Drawing; *Oral Communication; *Psychotherapeutic
Techniques, *Art Therapy; *Explicit Memory; *Life Experiences; *Psychotherapy;
*Sexual Abuse; Art; Counseling; Emotional Responses; Symptoms, *Art;
*Art Therapy; *Drawing; *Measurement; *Psychological Assessment; Attitudes;
Cognitive Processes; Communication; Emotions; Problem Solving; Projective
Personality Measures; Projective Techniques; Screening Tests
and communication, Victim
Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of
mental disorders, fourth edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric
Harlow. (2003). A descriptive study: Selection and use of art mediums
by sexually abused adults: Implications in counseling and art psychotherapy.
; Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and
Engineering, 64(4-B), 2003. pp. 1679.
Villarreal, G. et.al.,
(2004). Reduced area of the corpus callosum in posttraumatic stress
disorder. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging Section, 131(3), 227-235.