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The Articles of Favorable Treatment

The Articles of Favorable Treatment were designed for the purpose of saving the face of the Qing Dynasty when the Republic took hold of China in 1912.  Although most of the provision of the document were never wholly upheld, it was, nonetheless, a means of bringing to an end nearly 6,000 years of Imperial rule in China.

  "...It [the "Articles of Favorable Treatment"] was part of the compromise arrived at in the course of the negotiations [for peace between he throne and the Republican forces].  The emperor's contribution towards the compromise was contained in the edict [the last imperial Edict, which announced his abdication of the throne].  The republicans' contribution was embodied in a formal document entitled "Articles of Favorable Treatment of the TaQing Emperor after his Abdication.""

"In consideration of the fact that the TaQing emperor has publicly announced his approval of the establishment of a republican form of government, the following Articles relating to the Favorable Treatment of the TaQing emperor after his abdication are hereby set forth."

"1.  After the abdication of the TaQing emperor, his title of dignity is to be retained by the Republic of China with the courtesies which it is customary to accord to foreign monarchs.

"2.  After the abdication of the TaQing emperor, he will receive from the Republic of China an annual subsidy of Tls.4,000,000.  After the reform of the currency this amount will be altered to $4,000,000 (mex.).

"3.  After the abdication of the TaQing emperor, he may, as a temporary measure, continue to reside in the Palace (in the Forbidden City), but afterwards he will remove himself to the Yi- Ho Park (the Summer Palace).  He may retain his bodyguard.

"4.  After the abdication of the TaQing emperor, the temples and mausoleums of the imperial family with their appropriate sacrificial rites shall be maintained in perpetuity.  The Republic of China will be responsible for the provision of military guards for their adequate protection.

"5.  As the Ch'ung mausoleum of the late emperor Tê Tsung has not yet been completed, the work will be carried out according to the proper regulations (relating to imperial tombs).  The last ceremonies of sepulture will also be observed in accordance with the ancient rites.  The actual expenses will all be borne by the Republic of China.

"6.  The services of all the persons of various grades hitherto employed in the Palace may be retained; but in future no eunuchs are to be added to the staff.

"7.  After the abdication of the TaQing emperor, his private property will be safeguarded and protected by the Republic of China.

"8.  The imperial guard corps as constituted at the time of the abdication will be placed under the military control of the War Office of the Republic of China.  It will be maintained at its original strength and will receive the same emoluments as heretofore."

There is another citation relating to the "Articles of Favorable Treatment" which I feel compelled to include in this study:
"Its seven clauses clearly indicate that during the three years that had elapsed since the abdication, some slight friction or misunderstandings has arisen between the imperial household and the republican government regarding the interpretation of the original articles of favorable treatment."  The document is dated 26 December 1914.

Reginald Fleming Johnston, Twilight In The Forbidden City (London: Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1934) 96- 98


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