The Lighthouse Directory

Welcome to the Lighthouse Directory, providing information and links for more than 22,500 of the world's lighthouses. Follow the Directory's Twitter feed for the latest in lighthouse news and Directory updates. Latest update November 21, 2020.

This week the pages for Western Cuba, Northern Papua New Guinea, the Yenisey River in Russia, the Kagoshima Area in Japan, Southern Fujian in China, Southern Netherlands, Southern Busan in South Korea, Blekinge in Sweden, Western South Africa, Campania and Lazio in Italy, and Southeast Luzon in the Philippines have been checked and revised with improved information and several new photos.

Covid closures: Many lighthouses have closed due to the pandemic and many that have reopened have restricted hours or no longer permit tower climbs. Because these closures and reopenings change frequently, it's not possible for the Directory to keep up with them. We present information on the normal schedules of lighthouses, pre-pandemic: check lighthouse websites or Facebook pages before visiting to find out the current situation.

New in the Directory: A Checklist of Lightships in the world. Included are some 124 ships surviving, restored, abandoned, or recently scrapped.

Special thanks this week to Andreas Köhler for comments on lights in the Netherlands, to Jerónimo Acosta for comments on lights in the Buenos Aires area of Argentina, to FoxyFan13 for several comments on Panama Canal lights and other matters, and to Jim Smith for comments on last week's revisions.



1909 Gadeokdo Light, Gangseo, Busan, South Korea, May 2019
Google Maps photo by Kangkang

A Month of Lighthouse News:

Stumholmen Fyr
Stumholmen Light, Karlskrona, Blekinge, Sweden, March 2009
Flickr Creative Commons photo by Samuel Mann

About this site
Founded in 1999 (during the relocation of North Carolina's Cape Hatteras lighthouse), the Lighthouse Directory is a tool for research and study concerning lighthouses and efforts to preserve those lighthouses. The Directory provides a brief compilation of basic data for each lighthouse with links to other reliable information available on the Internet. Since the addition of the Hainan page in February 2009 listings cover the entire world. However, this doesn't mean the Directory is complete, because new information continues to come to light.

I'm glad to hear from site visitors, especially if you have lighthouse news or photos of rarely-visited lighthouses.

The Directory has over 30,000 links, and all of them were appropriate and legitimate when they were added. Occasionally, because a web site is hacked or a URL is captured, a link leads not to legitimate information but to an inappropriate site, such as a source of pornography or malicious software. Please let me know if this happens, and I will remove the offending link immediately.

This site is hosted by, one of the largest free information databases online, maintained as a public service of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Cape Agulhas Light
Cape Agulhas Light, Western Cape, South Africa, July 2009
Flickr Creative Commons photo by John Hartnup

What is a lighthouse?
It is not so easy to define exactly what we mean by a lighthouse, and various organizations and individuals have used very different definitions when describing or classifying lighthouses. Clearly, all lighthouses are lighted aids to navigation, but not all lighted aids are considered to be lighthouses.

Some definitions are not controversial. An aid to navigation is a structure placed on or near navigable water to provide visual guidance to mariners. A beacon is an aid to navigation that is fixed in place (that is, not floating). A lighted beacon or lightbeacon is a beacon displaying a light, while an unlit beacon is called a daybeacon. Often, a lighted beacon is simply called a light.

Everyone agrees that a lighthouse is a lightbeacon that is, in some sense, a substantial building. Small lightbeacons such as masts, solid pillars, or small cabinets are usually not considered to be lighthouses. In this Directory, the guideline is that a lighthouse should have a height of at least 4 meters (13 ft) and a cross-section, at the base, of at least 4 square meters (43 sq ft). This simple guideline does not require that a lighthouse have any particular form or appearance. The structure of a lighthouse may be enclosed, partially enclosed, or completely open.

The Directory includes listings of certain lights and other sites of interest to lighthouse fans that aren't lighthouses by this definition. The titles of those listings are enclosed in square brackets [...]. In addition, lighthouses destroyed or demolished since 2000 continue to be listed; their names are preceded by the hashtag #.

A light station is a collection of buildings including a lighthouse, staff quarters, and supporting structures such as a fog signal building housing a foghorn or fogbell, a boathouse, an oil house to store fuel for the light, and so on. A century ago all lighthouses required lightkeepers to maintain and operate the light, fog signal, and other equipment. Today practically all aids to navigation operate automatically, but some light stations have resident caretakers, still called keepers, to maintain the property and guard against vandalism.

Faro d'Agropoli
Agropoli Light, Agropoli, Campania, Italy, November 2007
Wikipedia Creative Commons photo by Mujaidin

The lighthouse listings
Dates shown for lighthouses are the dates when the light was first displayed; this may be later than the construction date in some cases. A station establishment date, when listed, is the date when a light was first displayed at or near the same location. Data concerning the characteristics of lights comes mostly from the U.S. Coast Guard Light List for U.S. lighthouses and from the NGA List of Lights for lighthouses in other countries.

The focal plane height of a light is the height above the surface of the water at which the light is displayed. (The level of the water surface is usually "mean high water," the level at an average high tide.) In the listings, "focal plane" refers to the focal plane height. A lantern of a lighthouse is a room or structure that actually encloses the light.

The heights of the lighthouse towers themselves should be considered approximate. Different sources use different methods for measuring tower heights, and those heights may actually change due to changes in ground level at the base of the tower.

I have attempted to determine whether lighthouse sites and towers are open to the public. This information is inferred from whatever sources may be available; it is certainly not guaranteed. Please let me know if this information, or any information in the Directory, is incorrect.

Lighthouse listings are marked with ratings of zero to four stars based on the extent to which the light station is open to visitors. Check the ratings key to interpret these ratings.

Bagatao Island Light, Sorsogon, Philippines, April 2015
photo copyright Loyd Martinez; used by permission

Castillo del Morro Light, Havana, Cuba, January 2014
Wikimedia Creative Commons photo
by Mariordo

Articles about lighthouses:

Special Resources

Madang Light
Coastwatchers Light, Madang, Papua New Guinea, July 2008
Flickr Creative Commons photo by Kahunapule Michael Johnson

Novoselenskiy Range Rear Light, Yenesey River, Russia, August 2009
photo copyright Evgeny Gusev; used by permission

Sata Misaki Light, Minamiōsumi, Kagoshima, Japan, April 2019
Google Maps photo by Shōichi Torigoe

Guleitou Light
Gǔléitóu (Thunder Head) Light, Zhāngpǔ County, Fujian, China
PRC Ministry of Transport photo

Hoek van Holland Range Rear Light
1893 Hoek van Holland Rear Light, Rotterdam, Netherlands, January 2012
Flickr Creative Commons photo by Nik Morris

Utklippan Fyr
Utklippan Light, Karlskrona, Blekinge, Sweden, May 2008
Flickr Creative Commons photo by Piet and Anneke Admiraal

Regional, state, and local lighthouse preservation organizations are recognized on each U.S. state page. U.S. organizations interested in lighthouse preservation nationally are:

  • The American Lighthouse Foundation, based in Rockland, Maine. ALF encourages preservation efforts throughout the country and holds preservation leases on more than a dozen New England lighthouses.
  • The United States Lighthouse Society, formerly based in San Francisco, has moved to the Point No Point Lighthouse in Hansville, Washington. USLHS has chapters active in the Chesapeake area, Long Island, Oregon, and Washington, and has been active in supporting preservation in other areas as well. The Society also publishes a respected journal, The Keeper's Log, and has a large collection of historic light lists of U.S. lighthouses.

Lighthouses on the Internet: A Researcher's Guide has replaced the list of links formerly on this page.

Green Point Lighthouse
Green Point Light, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa, January 2007
Flickr Creative Commons photo by Danie van der Merwe (no longer online)

Punta dello Stendardo Light, Gaeta, Lazio, Italy
photo copyright Capt. Peter Mosselberger; used by permission

Cayo Guano del Este Light, Canarreos, Isla de la Juventud, Cuba, February 2005
photo copyright Erwin Strohmer; used by permission

West Schouwen Light, Haamstede, Netherlands, June 2004
Flickr Creative Commons photo by Ralf Schulze

Lighthouses of the Americas

Northeastern United States

Southeastern United States and U.S. Caribbean

Midwestern United States

Western United States and U.S. Pacific Territories

Atlantic Canada and St. Pierre

Interior and Western Canada

Bermuda and the West Indies


Central America

South America, Antarctica, South Atlantic Ocean

Lighthouses of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, Australia, and Africa

New Zealand and Pacific Islands


Indian Ocean


Lighthouses of Europe

Britain and Ireland

France, Monaco and Switzerland

Spain and Portugal

Italy and Malta

Greece and the Balkans

Southwestern Russia and Ukraine

Belgium and Netherlands

Germany and Austria

Denmark, Faroes, Iceland, and Greenland

Norway (listed south to north)

Sweden (listed south to north)

Poland and the Baltic States


Northwestern Russia (southwest to northeast)

Lighthouses of Asia

Mediterranean, Black Sea and Caspian Asia

Arabia, Iran and Pakistan


Southeast Asia


Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and Timor Leste

China and Taiwan

Asiatic Russia

Korea (listed clockwise around the peninsula)

Japan (listed clockwise around the main islands)

Nagasaki Hana Light
Satsuma Nagasaki Hana Light, Ibusuki, Kagoshima, Japan, September 2007
Flickr Creative Commons photo by Sergio Mazzarelli

Thanks to:

Hundreds of lighthouse fans around the world have enriched this site with their assistance, information, suggestions, and corrections. For a long time I tried to maintain a list of these many friends and contacts, but it has grown too long (and too out of date) to display here. However, I must recognize the late Michel Forand for his suggestions and corrections touching essentially every page of this work, and extend thanks to Jeremy D'Entremont, Ted Sarah, and Klaus Huelse, who have followed the development of the Directory for years. Each of them has contributed information and support in vital ways, and the Directory would be much less useful without their participation. Also, in recent years Jim Smith has reviewed many of the pages of the Directory, identifying errors and locating improved satellite views.


Written by:

Russ Rowlett, Adjunct Professor of Mathematics and Retired Professor of Education
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

You are welcome to email the author ( with comments and suggestions.

All material in The Lighthouse Directory is copyright 2020 by Russ Rowlett and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Many images are presented by permission of their copyright holders, as noted under the image.

Permission is granted to copy portions of the Directory for personal use and study, but all other rights are reserved. You are welcome to make links to this page or to any page of the Directory, provided you credit the source and do not present the work as your own.

Please do not copy the contents of any page of the Directory to another site. This is an infringement of copyright, and it also deprives your users of the benefit of improvements and corrections made to the page. Everyone has permission to link to this page or to any page of the Directory.

The information contained in the directory is as accurate as I can make it; please notify me if you find any errors. Neither the author nor the University of North Carolina assumes any liability for uses made of the information presented by this web site.